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The Recent Graduates Program RGP targets recent graduates of qualifying associates, bachelors, masters, professional, doctorate, vocational or technical degree or certificate from a qualifying educational institution.

To be eligible, applicants must apply within two years of degree or certificate completion. Successful applicants will be placed in a one-year career development program. Specific coursework may be required depending on the career field.

A complete application must be submitted by PM EST on the closing date of the announcement to receive consideration, or when the application cut-off limit has been reached, whichever happens first. Candidates are encouraged to complete their applications well before the application deadline to ensure they receive consideration. Should candidates be missing any of the required documents or submit their application late, they will be disqualified for consideration of employment.

The vacancy will close on the closing date listed in the announcement or when the maximum number of applications is received. The vacancy will close when the first of these conditions are met.

If the application limit is reached on the same day the announcement opened, the open and close date will be the same. This includes submitting the online application as well as any required documents as defined in the Required Documents section in the listed announcement. Please note if a candidate modifies their application before the announcement closes, a new time stamp will be assigned to their submission, potentially pushing them past the application cut-off limits.

The vacancy will close on the closing date listed in the announcement or the day the maximum number of applications is received. If you are currently on active duty, you must provide a certification on letterhead from your military branch which contains your military service date, expected date of discharge or release, and the character of service to show that your military service was performed under honorable conditions.

The expected date of discharge or release must be within days of the date the certification is submitted for consideration for this vacancy announcement. If the appropriate information is not submitted to confirm your current or expected discharge status, dates of service, etc. Previous editions of the SF will not be accepted. For Sole Survivorship preference , you must provide a copy of your DD Member Copy 4 is preferable or another form of official documentation which shows your discharge or release from active duty occurred on or after August 29, and was based on a sole survivorship discharge.

RGs are required to complete one day rotational assignment in a different functional area within their job series. The Master Training and Development Plan describe the planned training and development activities during the course of the one year Recent Graduates Program. These activities are designed to enable the participant to acquire the competencies, knowledge and skills for successful job performance. Host bureaus are responsible for funding all non-FSI training courses as well as related travel and per diem expenses.

Travel and per diem is authorized only when the training course is not offered locally. To be eligible for conversion to the competitive service after completion of the program, an RG must:. The US Department of State is not obligated to make an offer of employment, nor is the student obligated to accept an offer of employment. Recent Graduates Program. Eligibility Requirements. Citizenship Recent graduate within the previous two years veterans precluded by their military service obligation will have up to six years You will be subject to random drug testing Be able to receive and maintain Secret or Top Secret security clearance.

Qualification Requirements. Compensation and Benefits. While the government uses at least six different pay scales, the majority of Civil Service employees are paid using the GS General Schedule pay scale. Employees hired under the Pathways Programs on appointments for 90 days or more are eligible to earn annual and sick leave.

How to Apply. Required Documents. Insufficient information will result in an ineligible rating. Transcripts — if you are qualifying based on education OR if there are mandatory education requirements listed under the Qualifications and Evaluations section, you MUST submit a copy of your college transcript s with your application. Training Requirements. Conversion to the Competitive Service. To be eligible for conversion to the competitive service after completion of the program, an RG must: Be a U.

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Usajobs pathways recent graduates schoolwear onlinesbi.


Company Filings. The Recent Graduates Program provides an на этой странице developmental work schoolewar opportunity designed to lead to a civil service career in the federal government.

The program targets individuals who have recently graduated from a qualifying accredited educational institution, to include universities, community colleges, trade and vocational schools, and other qualifying educational institutions.

To be eligible, applicants must apply within two 2 years of degree or certificate completion. The U. Securities and Exchange Commission SEC offers recent pathwahs opportunities year-round, as they become available. Note: Pathwwys job opportunity announcements allow for a student usajobs pathways recent graduates schoolwear onlinesbi apply within nine months of degree completion.

If applicable, it will be noted in the respective announcement. Gfaduates appointed to this program are referred to as recent graduates and are placed in a dynamic, usajobs pathways recent graduates schoolwear onlinesbi developmental program. Upon successful completion of the Recent Graduates Program, a recent graduate may obtain a permanent position. An applicant will need to apply directly to a job opportunity announcement for consideration.

Search SEC. Securities and Exchange Commission. Pathways: /47160.txt Graduates Program. The features of this program are as follows: Must be a U.

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Lin Using the gratification theory we will have a deeper understanding on what the respondents use the Internet for. This theory looks at what the respondents do with the Internet and why. Since all the respondents were lecturers it is also evident that they utilized Internet for research activities and downloading files. The respondents were less interested in playing games and on-line shopping. The employees of Gulf College use Internet as a part of their daily life.

It is evident that Gulf Taguinod College supports Green Computing because they use e-mail to communicate. Emails do not use paper and environment friendly and save a lot of trees from being cut down. Chart 1. Assessment on the Internet Activities of the Respondents Table 3. Although they fall on Social Interaction but socializing with family and friends are the motivations of the respondents. Very few respondents use the Internet to get new relations.

According to Nadkarni et. The output of this study was the same on the output of the study of Richardson entitled Uses and Gratifications of Agnostic refuse: Case Study of a skeptical On-Line Congregation, stated that information seeking or retrieval of information appears repeatedly as a primary gratification for Internet use.

On the study of Weiser entitled The functions of Internet Use and Their Social and Psychological Consequences states that the Internet s social and psychological effects were dependent on the user s reasons for using it. In other words, the Internet s social and psychological effect depends on the function it serves for the user. Since all the respondents are lecturers their first motivation to use the Internet is to get information from it because they need that information on their job especially in teaching.

It is also evident in this study that their second motivation is social interaction with family and friends because many of the respondents were ex patriate they use the Internet to communicate with their friends and families living on other countries like India, Philippines, Pakistan, etc. It is evident that the respondents motivations is using the Internet is for academic purposes.

According to Meyen, Michael, et. The professionals use Internet because of work or business. Professionals are well educated and used Internet to increase social identity.

The study result plainly shows that the usage of Internet is influenced by their habitus, life experiences, age, education level and social position, etc. The college can offer distance learning or Open University because all lecturers are knowledgeable on how to use the Internet.

Date accessed: September 1, Journalism of Media and Religion, 2 4 , The websites these are days acting as an online agent via which different categories of the users can get their work done without paying physical visit to that organization. It forces the web designers to design websites in such a fashion so that their behavior remains similar when accessed by different categories of the users.

The institutional websites must be designed in such a way that they are also accessible to the dynamic categories of the users available worldwide including those suffering from different types of visual impairments like Colour Blindness etc. Use of Colours in Website Design is a very important issue which needs to be addressed in order to improve the aesthetic sense of a Website. Authors in this paper have developed an online Automated Tool using.

The Automated Tool act like a parser HTML and CSS which renders the complete code of a website and produces result on the basis of the various types of color combinations used to develop websites. Various groups of user are sensitive to different combinations of colors. The Automated Tool developed by the authors evaluates websites on the basis of three different colour blindness such as Protanopia, Deuteranopia and Tritanopia and reports the visibility of different tags by the persons suffering from the above given three types of visual impairments.

The results produced shows that out of the five different categories of websites employed for analysis the Job Portal websites follows the minimum of standards as far as color combination parameter is concerned and hence least visible to the visually impaired people i.

Whereas Government websites show least divergence from the standards and hence are designed by strictly adhering to the standards design guidelines recommended by W3C for designing websites. Numbers of different kinds of websites are there but the most widely used categories of the websites are Educational, Commercial, Government, social networking and job portals.

These days it has become mandatory for an organization big or small to develop a website to render its services online through different networks. With increase in the number of websites and its popularity it becomes necessary for an organization to put lot of efforts to design websites carefully so that it can easily cater to the need of all the different categories of the users.

Numbers of websites design issues are there which needs to be kept into consideration while designing websites. One of the most important issues among all is the color combinations employed. The availability of a large number of colors now a day for webpage designing has led to color combination issues as different sections of users suffering from various color blindness problems are affected to different levels by the colors employed for designing purposes.

With the advent of availability of large number of color combinations it becomes mandatory for a website to have colors that are visible to almost every section of the users. Different organizations are working in the field of website design which is responsible for design, development and implementation of different types of website development standards.

For evaluating website design according to the recommended standards, a wide variety of online tools are available based on certain properties? These online tools test the website visibility to each and every group of users including those suffering from different types of visual impairments. On the basis of study carried out the authors in this research paper have developed its own online Automated Tool for testing website Colour Combinations recommended by W3C for designing websites.

The Automated Tool reports those colour combinations from website design which are not recommended in design guidelines and hence not visible to the users suffering from different visual impairments. The tool basically focuses The working of the entire tool is based on the standards recommended by W3C for web design. The working of the Automated Tool developed is explained in below given Fig. From server the HTML code of the website is supplied to the interface for making comparison with the existing standards.

The algorithm used by the Automated Tool for fetching and making comparisons of the different colour combinations used in website design is given below: Algorithm 7: Algorithm to determine Color Combination in website design.

Input: Website URL Output: list of color combinations employed for each tag and effect on user groups. End 2. Problem Identification Web pages are basically the platform for communication between an organization and users of wide variety scattered all over the world. The strangers on websites for the first time share their maiden impressions with web producer and even a reader also shares their impressions and communicates through a web.

It becomes very difficult as well as crucial for the designers to satisfy all the dynamic categories of the users with their multiple choices in colour preferences for categories. Colors are basically the medium through which we can convey wide variety of information to the users in the form of images and messages on our web page [1].

Researchers and scientists believe that colors greatly influence the human psychology. Consequently, the color patterns that we choose in our website are very important in nature. Coloring patterns vary in several different ways and it also depends on its properties like saturation and brightness. When a user visits a web page, he will get excited, happy or bored. All this determined by the color selection [2]. Color is an equally important factor in Webpage design considerations.

The use of color combination is very crucial while selecting backgrounds and foregrounds of a web page. An important design issue is to select the background and foreground colors with enough contrast to make the content visible.

Using enough contrast, such as analogous and monochromatic colors, makes it hard for the readers to read the text. Whereas, too severe contrast can also cause physiological headache. Choosing inappropriate Color Combinations during website design can also have devastating effects.

These days people are working a lot on website accessibility. Many people today have color blindness problem. In such case while making website we should consider such issues. If a person is not able to differentiate between two colors and these colors are used in site, than the person is not able to get the info from site. Another important aspect of color combination is its impact on online industry, as it controls the decision making power of a consumer.

According to a survey conducted by Institute of Color Research, a large section of product consumers makes a quick assessment of the product within one and a half minute and this quick assessment depends totally on color combination used.

Therefore, using right color combination in a website can do or undo the chance of getting success in the virtual world. Similarly, there are other factors on which there is a direct compact of the color combination used by the website.

So, the choice of appropriate color selection during the design process is of great importance for the accessibility purposes. A web design guideline often includes recommendation for using appropriate color combinations in websites. Many of which recommends high contrast between text and background with particular emphasis on the traditional black on white [3]. Online Tool for Testing Websites Based on the literature survey the authors have devolved their own Automated Tool for testing different categories of the websites.

The Automated Tool developed will test the website on their adherence to the standards guidelines recommended by W3C regarding selection of different colour combinations in website design. Colour Blind. The color related problems in the designs of websites are evaluated on the basis of the various types of color combinations used by the web designers in developing various parts of the website and their effects on the section of the users that suffer from color blindness problems.

While certain users are able to recognize any combination of colors that may case hindrances to other group of users.

Based on the color recognition capabilities various categories of users have been devised. The three common types of color blindness user categories are Protanopia, Deuteranopia, and Tritanopia.

The website Design Evaluator provides statistics for this parameter by taking into consideration various categories of color blind users and parse all the elements of web pages, evaluate their background and foreground color and then test their visibility against Protanopia, Deuteranopia, and Tritanopia persons. Sample Data The Sample data undertaken for the study for gathering statistics related to the selection Color Combinations in website design is given below in Table 1.

A total of websites belonging to five different categories were selected for analysis. Since different categories of websites are designed keeping in view the different types of constraints associated with them.

Therefore the diversity among different categories of websites is considered to have better understanding of the variations in the features undertaken for the parameter with the help of Automated Tool developed by the authors. Table 1: Sample Data S. Results and Discussions The statistics obtained after testing the websites given in above Table 1 taken as Sample data using Automated Tool is recorded in Table 2 and Table 3. The obtained data is then analyzed by framing it into a pie chart and graph as shown below in Fig.

It has been observed that from five different categories of websites undertaken as sample data for testing. The maximum number of Government websites are adhering to design guidelines recommended for selecting different types of colour combinations in website design prescribed in W3C guidelines given in WCAG 2.

Hence they are visible to all the users available worldwide including those suffering from different types of visual impairments i. Colour Blindness Protanopia, Deuteranopia, and Tritanopia. Analysis based on different categories of websites separately for Color Check parameter: Statistics taken from Automated Tool in testing Color Combination for different categories of the websites taken as Sample Data shown in Table: 1.

The testing of Government category of websites is done by using the Automated Tool developed by the authors for testing colour combinations in website design. The Automated Tool determined the different color combinations in government websites which are not visible to any user suffering from any type of visual impairments i. It has been observed from Fig.

The testing of all the Educational Websites taken as sample data was done by using the Automated Tool developed to determine the selection of color combination in websites design for various types of commonly found color visibility problems among the users. All others websites are not designed as per the recommended web design standards hence they will not be visible to users suffering from any type of visual impairments.

The commercial category of websites was tested by using Automated Tool developed by the authors for testing website strictly as per the standards recommended by W3C for website design. The Automated Tool developed determined the different color combination in website design for various types of commonly found color visibility problems among the users.

All other websites taken as sample data are not completely visible to users with any type of visibility disorder. The testing of Social Networking websites was done by using the Automated Tool developed to determine the selection of different color combination in given websites for various types of commonly found Visual impairment among users i. Colour Blindness. The above given analysis carried out on different color combination issue in website design using our own Automated Tool clearly indicates that websites are neglecting recommended guidelines and necessary criteria for color selection in websites that otherwise must be considered for providing uniform accessibility to each and every type of dynamic categories of the users worldwide.

Failing which they are not visible to the people suffering from different types of visual impairments i. It has been observed that rigorous and sincere efforts are required to meet with these recommended standards and criteria w. It has already been discussed that this tool determines the compatibility of the color combination used within a website to the user by considering the background and foreground colors In case of nested tags the tool is unable to consider the mutual effects of the tags.

It considers each tag in the nested tags as distinct tag and doesn t considers the effect of foreground and background colors of outer tags on the inner tags that participate in the nesting while in reality they have a considerable effect on one another. The combinations of colors used in outer tags have a one to one effect on the colors used in inner tags and vice versa. The area that plays a leading role in determining the compatibility issues with the color combinations on various user categories can also be considered to design WebPages that are more effective and efficient, having better user satisfaction capabilities and adhere to the standards recommended by concerned organizations in a more appropriate and efficient way.

The problems that have been observed in case of nested tags will be evaluated to understand their mutual effect on one another. Colors also add into the aesthetic sense of a website.

Addition of a few colors can make a boring site attractive, a good site unattractive, or can evoke emotional responses. Selection of recommended colors helps the dynamic categories of the users to enjoy the web-experience in right perspective. Increasing accessibility for people suffering from different types of visual impairment i.

There are some considerations that we need to adopt in order to increase accessibility for different types of colorblind readers. It is strongly recommended that designers must use strong and bright contrast between foreground and background colors for your page text and different images on websites.

Even totally colorblind readers can also differentiate between such type of colour selection scheme of bright with dark colors [1, 5]. The website designer has a responsibility to choose the appropriate colors during the design phase recommended by the standards organizations so that the user does not get lost or confused. These standards help the website designers and webmasters to improve upon website design to a greater extent. The standards recommended by W3C regarding different design parameters make website behaviors uniform for all the categories of users including those suffering from different types of visual impairments.

Gadpayle 3, V. Ravi 4, P. Swain 2, A. Varshney 5, S. Partially Crude Probabilities of death for TB and Diarrhea with respect to other opportunistic infections are highly variable and Partially Crude Probabilities of death for other opportunistic infections in the absence of TB are very much alike. Results also highlight the substantially higher risks of mortality in individuals with CD4 and confected by various coinfections.

Approximately 36 Million HIV infected person have been estimated worldwide and 1. India has third largest HIV epidemic in the world. It has recently estimated the 2. ART has the potential both to reduce mortality and morbidity rates among HIV-infected people, and to improve their quality of life.

At the end of , more than , people were on antiretroviral therapy, the second largest number of people on treatment in any single country. A healthy person contains approximately CD4 cells per mm 3 in blood.

HIV virus attacks on immune system and CD4 cells are deteriorated accordingly. Initially, it was recommended by Center for Disease Control. Manoj Kumar Varshney et al. In this paper, we estimate the mortality of HIV patients with respect to various risks while taking into account their CD4 cells component.

This paper is an extension of the work by Grover,et. RML is one of the largest centers in northern India, where patients come for their treatment from not only Delhi but, also from various regions located nearby this city. This theory assumes that several risks compete against each other independently. As we know, AIDS is a syndrome which curbs the immune system of the body and hence leaves the individual vulnerable to the opportunistic infections which on any other day would have been just a passing cloud.

A co-infection is another illness one may get while having HIV. People who have HIV can also contract these illnesses viz. B [Doe, S. We have identified some major opportunistic infections from the collected live data. We have used SPSS software to estimate these probabilities and analysis the results.

Year wise reported AIDS patients and deaths are shown in table1. Figure-1 represents the percentage of deaths due to various opportunistic infections. It may be noted that highest percentage of deaths is due to TB i. It is denoted by Q i. It is denoted by q i.

It is denoted by q i.. An estimate of Partially Crude probability of death is obtained by the formula A possible reason could be that patients usually come to the ART center when they feel sick or any serious health related problem only and this sickness may be due to deteriorating immune system i. Between the years , the Crude probability of death, Net probability of death Type-I and Type-II and partially crude probability of death with respect to CD4 counts have been estimated.

These results have been tabulated and represented in the Tables and figures below. A possible reason for this trend might be that lesser CD4 counts tend to weaken the immune system of AIDS patients hence the mortality is higher for this segment. Further, ART is prolonging their life. From the analysis, we observed that death rate is declining in last few years due to awareness about the HIV infection and due to the improvement in the medical facilities.

Table-4 shows all such probabilities with respect to 2 categories of CD4 counts. Crude Probability Manoj Kumar Varshney et al.

With these observations, we may conclude that for lower CD4 counts, mortality of AIDS patients is higher in almost all the opportunistic infections. Which shows bit opposite trend with the less survival with CD4 counts But, when risk TB is eliminated the average of estimated Net probability of death type-ii is estimated the least.

Bar diagram clearly show the results. Here we observed that Partially crude probability of death due to TB has almost no effect after eliminating one or more risks respectively. Which shows that the risk TB is much more dominant over all other prevalent risks in the population of AIDS patient during the period of and also for Diarrhea, the mortality is also similar after eliminating other risks but lesser as compared to risk TB.

Results also highlights the substantially higher risks of mortality faced by individuals confected by various coinfections. The competing risks methods permitted a rich and detailed examination of mortality. The probability of death of AIDS patients without any specification of cause is highest in the year while lowest in the year and has the tendency of decreasing as time increases.

It was also observed that the number of patients were increased in the year but the percentage of death has a decreasing trend over the period The average of Net probability of death type-i and Net probability of death type-ii show that opportunistic infection TB and Diarrhea have higher impact on survivability of AIDS patients with CD4 as compared to other opportunistic infections.

Partially Crude probability of death shows that mortality of AIDS patients is significantly affected by the variation of CD4 cell count and opportunistic infection. It also shows that presence or absence of other risks has approximately no effect on probability of death due to TB and Diarrhea for AIDS patients with both the segments of CD4 cell counts.

Wiley, New York. G, Gadpayle A. K and Varshney M. Sci Am. Lancet ; Today s learning is not limited to the classroom only. Mobile learning M-learning is an ideal technique for delivering the content to learners at the time of their need.

The course was designed as a blended learning approach and the material was digitally used through Moodle s webpages, designed for the course along with face to face teaching. Students had used their smart phones and portable devices for accessing the Course website.

The findings revealed that students had a little exposure to M- learning at the beginning of the course, and had appreciated M-learning technique, after testing it. Moodle is one of the well-known Learning Management System working with interlinked e-documents. Oman is extremely determined to advance its educational system. Sultan Qaboos University SQU is serving thousands of male and female students as the national university.

SQU staff and students are using Moodle, a Learning Management System for effective teaching and learning, and getting positive benefits. SQU staff is mostly utilizing the Moodle in the e-learning environment, with fixed computer locations. Today, the restrictions of learning through fixed areas can be switched to Mobile Learning and the learners can get the help at the time of their need.

Mobile learning is an ability that allows learning through moving and changing the position of a learner from place to place while using mobile devices for sending, receiving and using a range of digital information sources Chad, Keeping in view enormous benefits of M-Learning, this research study was experimented through M-learning environment for the purpose of instruction. Firstly, we had introduced Moodle to the students studying the course Basic Computing Skills, through using the electronic material of the course, and then requested them to use their smart phones for accessing e-mails, e-materials, and chat sessions through Moodle etc.

Mostly the instruction at SQU is through Moodle, with in the environment of e-learning along with fixed location of computers in the labs or at the students accommodation. We had tested Mobile learning environment in the form of blended learning, to give an opportunity to the leaners, to do their learning without any restriction of the fixed areas. The major benefit of mobile learning is that the learner is mobile and is not restricted to a specific location Chad, And students used their smart phones and portable devices to access the digital material.

M-Learning is the learning through personal electronic devices towards various electronic contents Crompton, The assessment of performance and effects of any electronic tool can be made on the factors like; Comfortability, essentiality or importance, feel at ease or There are lots of benefits for using E-mails and Chatting.

E-mail is very informal and casual that enables to write a message with in fewer amounts of time, and without worrying about grammatical mistakes Yates, Orlikowski, E-mail is as essential as any other medium of communication like phone, fax, paper, or mail Quaresma et al.

Keeping in view huge benefits of E-mails, chatting and e-materials, this paper had addressed in analysing the overall effects of the usage of these electronic communications through M- Learning using Moodle.

Moodle is platform for educators, leaners and administrator that provide a secure, robust and an integrated system, and users can create their own personalized learning environments Moodle, Moodle Instructors can organize and control course contents and its delivery using Moodle as an integrated system Brooks-Young, A course website was created using Moodle and e-materials were made available on the website, in combination with traditional face-to-face instruction.

A questionnaire was used to gather the student responses, using ten questions, for three hundred and twenty students. Three key domains were established related to Attitudes towards m-learning using Moodle, m-learning using Moodle helps in understanding and learning the course, and helps in exam preparation, and students favourite mode of learning through Instructor only, through m-learning using Moodle or both.

Data was collected in two phases Before and After. Before was the initial phase and data collection at this stage was during the beginning of the course when students didn t use the M-learning using Moodle, and gave their feedback. After was the phase when students gave their feedback at the end of the course after using m-learning.

Likert scale was used to collect the feedback for each item, ranging from 1 to 5, where 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Disagree, 3-Uncertain OR never used Moodle before , 4-Agree, 5-Strongly Agree. The e-materials used in the study were course outline, presentations, and additional exercises for practicing, course helping e-materials, e- notes, e-mails, chat sessions, and useful links.

Instructors and students were regularly involved in e-communications for sharing and exchanging the information, ideas, raised questions and their answers through E-mails Asynchronous mode and Moodle s Online Chat Sessions Synchronous mode. As a reply of their questions and requests, required material and information was made obtainable on the course website. Chat sessions were controlled and revised by the instructors and greatly participated by the students, outside of regular class timings.

An assessment was made at the initial phase: Before starting the course and then the next assessment was After the course, to differentiate any recognizable difference on students attitudes towards m- learning through Moodle, its effects on learning and understanding, and students likings in assessment with Instructor vs m-learning through Moodle.

Face to face instruction was conducted in the computer labs, with each lab having 32 computers with Microsoft Office. M-learning was done through students smart phones, tablets and portable devices of their choice. Plain statistical analysis had been used to assess the gathered data, by comparing the group means to analyse the amount of change from Before to After phase. The Mean of study for the variables Friendly, Comfortable and Essential was low at the beginning of the course, whereas in After phase students responded with a big size of change with 2.

This thing shows that the students But after the use of m- learning it was significant that the students attitude towards m-learning using Moodle was very positive and considered the m-learning as friendly, comfortable and essential for learning. But, after using m-learning, when students were asked at an After phase, they valued the effect of m-learning using Moodle with a very positive response by a huge size of change After-Before for the variables, with the values 2.

The means of the study along with the size of change are presented in Table 2 and graphically shown in Fig. Before starting the course, students were asked to give their opinion about their favorite mode of instruction Instructor Only, m-learning using Moodle only or both Instructor and m-learning using Moodle.

As the whole world is increasingly establishing connections and joining the digital society, day by day, and the digital technologies are becoming prominent, therefore the education sector is also relishing the benefits of technology, and now a days learning is not only restricted to the traditional face-to-face mode. Mobile learning is a best method for providing the content to learners according to the time of their needs. Therefore additional use of m-learning using Moodle, along with traditional face-to-face instruction can positively affect the learning and understanding of students.

Study shows that majority of the students recognized that m- Learning is friendly, comfortable and essential part of the course, favored face-to-face instruction supported with m-learning using Moodle including the activities like online e-materials, exchanging E-mails, chat sessions, and useful links, etc. Mobile learning provides an opportunity to reach the digital content from any location with successful learning and enormous benefits Scott et al.

The most favorable thing students highlighted is the organized collection of all the learning e-material in one place like Moodle, and prompt feedback of their e-queries through m-learning devices on the course website. Got moodle? Journal, 35 4 , ,30, A historical overview of mobile learning: Toward learner-centered education. Muilenburg Eds. Florence, KY: Routledge. Investigating individual online synchronous chat counselling processes and treatment outcomes for young people. Advances in Mental Health.

July ; Accessed July 20, Voices from the Middle, 11 3 , , The role of involvement in learning management system success. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 22 2 , Retrieved from. Specifics of course management system benefits for new university faculty. Higher Education Studies,1 2 , Benefits of online chatting. Academy of Management Review, 17, Literature presents different techniques for web page retrieval based on keyword-matching mechanism.

In order to alleviate the issue behind the keyword matching in web page retrieval, a new classifier-based technique is developed in this paper using logarithmic similarity measure. Here, a new classifier, called FENN classifier is developed by including the fuzzy concept in the extended nearest neighbour classifier. The proposed FENN classifier classifies the input query to the relevant category and the document related to the category is retrieved from the input database.

The developed FENN classifier is experimented with the web page database collected through five benchmark queries and the quantitative performance is analyzed using precision, recall and f-measure with the existing ENN and KNN classifier. From the results, we proved that the proposed FENN classifier obtained the maximum f-measure of Keywords: Information retrieval, Web pages, k-nn classification, Similarity, F-measure.

Before the invention of Web, the information retrieval systems were used by librarians in libraries. For these retrieval systems, the algorithm was solely based on the analysis of the words in the documents. Research in the field of information retrieval is going on for past several years which develops and refines many techniques which are exclusively word-based. Due to the tremendous increase of Web pages in the internet, the researchers are paying more attention to find more efficient web page retrieval algorithms [16].

Among the various web page retrieval methods, the search engines are used to get the query from the user and recover the required information from the Web. Relevance ranking at the document level is a concept used in information retrieval for the past several years and this becomes the key task of the present Web search engines [14].

Classification of page content in the web is important to focused crawling, assisted development of web directories, topic-specific web link analysis, and analysis of the topical structure of the Web. The quality of web search is enhanced by the web page classification [13].

It also helps in systematic retrieval of documents by removing unsuitable web pages and it manages the World Wide Web WWW. Usually, the domain experts perform this task manually. As the WWW is growing at a faster rate, the manual categorization cannot match with the speed of the growth of the web.

So, there is a need to find automatic web page categorization. Furthermore, automatic web page categorization is faster and cheaper than manual categorization [15].

In this paper, we propose a new classifier called, FENN to perform the web page retrieval. The web page retrieval is performed using three important steps.

In the first step, important keywords are extracted after performing stop word removal, stemming and frequency computation. In the second step, the feature library is constructed for finding the neighbour documents.

In the third step, for the user query, the input documents are matched with this query to find the relevant document using FENN classifier which is newly developed by considering the fuzzy weightage for neighbours and neighbours of neighbours.

The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the existing Extended nearest neighbour method and section 3 presents the proposed fuzzy integrated extended nearest neighbour classification algorithm for web page retrieval. Section 4 presents the experimental results and section 5 concludes the paper. In the traditional K-nearest neighbour KNN classifier [3, 7, 9, 17], group membership is estimated by using only the nearest neighbours of the test samples.

But in ENN method, the estimation is done by considering, who is the nearest neighbour of test samples and who consider the test sample as their nearest neighbours. ENN iteratively assume all the possible class memberships of the test samples and utilize It learns from the global distribution and improves the pattern recognition performance and it provides good techniques for several data analysis applications.

Let assume that W be the input database and Q be the input sample to be classified. The class label of the input sample Q can be found out using the following equation. The l th class have the maximum value is the output class of the input sample Q. At first, the input data sample Q is matched with all the data sample of the input database using Euclidean distance and k set of samples are taken further those who are having minimum distance and then, the distance is matched for every taken sample with the database and again selects k set of samples.

Finally, the class information of the selected samples is checked and the class belonging to the maximum number of samples is considered as the class for the input data sample. C l 1 N k l k qw l rr1 E rr q, w Where, N l is the number of data samples belonging to the l th class, rr is number of neighbours of the neighbours. The values of q w following equation.

The considerations of both the neighbours samples which mean the neighbours of the input samples and neighbours of the neighbours of the input data samples can only improve the classification. Also, the matching of the input data sample with the database is performed using the Euclidean database.

The Euclidean distance considers the deviation of the two samples by doing the subtraction. But, in the web page retrieval, the page dissimilarity should utilize the frequency of the keywords and the overall availability of the keywords in the databases. So, the Euclidean distance should be modified for the web page retrieval when ENN classifier is incorporated into the web page retrieval. At first, web page database is given as input to the pre-processing steps which performs stop word removal and stemming.

Then, the feature library is constructed using the keywords extracted and the proposed FENN classifier is performed to find the category of the input query and a list of document are retrieved using the category. The block diagrams of the proposed FENN classifier is shown in figure 1.

W P i; 0 i N The html web page is read out and the tags are removed from the web pages. Subsequently, we apply the stop word removal process [2] which removes the stop words like, a, an, the, as, on, like and so on.

Once stop words are removed from the web pages, the stemming algorithm [4] is applied to covert the keywords to its root form. For example, the words like, performed, obtaining are converted to perform and obtain.

Then, the extracted keywords of every web page are used to find the frequency in the web page itself. The keywords which are more frequent in its document is taken further for constructing the feature library.

Each element in the feature library belongs to the frequency of the j th keyword in the i the web pages.

The number of keywords in the feature library is equal to the number of unique keywords in the input web pages. F f ; 0 i N; 0 j ij N D Where, fij is the frequency of j th keyword in the i the web pages, N is the number of web pages in the input database and N D is the number of keywords.

Block diagram of the proposed fuzzy integrated extended nearest neighbour classification algorithm for web page retrieval 3. Here, the input query from the user is obtained and it is given as input to the FENN classifier which finds the relevant documents of the input query by matching with the feature library.

In this proposed FENN classifier, the neighbours of the input query and neighbours of neighbours of the input query is utilized to find the relevant document of the input query. The class of the input query Q is computed using the following formula. Here, the neighbour of the original input query and the neighbours of the neighbours of the original query sample is weighted with fuzzy score value. Every documents obtains the score value if it is presented within the neighbour or neighbour of neighbour.

The score values are then weighted with alpha and beta to find the final score value of the every web page document. GG l is the measure related to the lth class using neighbours of neighbours of the input query. E r q, w is computed by incrementing the belongings of query and neighbours. After finding the score value for the every web pages, the category have the maximum value is taken as the topic for the input query. Finally, the documents related to that category are retrieved from the database and is given to the users.

Finding of neighbours: The neighbour for the input query is computed by matching the input query Q with the feature library F using the document similarity measure given in [8].

The reason behind the selection of this similarity measure is that it considered the frequency and similarity of the neighbour documents to provide the similarity values. The traditional techniques [1, 11] considered only the TF-IDF which is not suitable for measuring similarities between sentences if the common words are very less. But, this document similarity measure [8] considers the frequency of the query keyword within the web page and the similarity of the documents those who are having the query keyword.

Also, these parameters are merged within the logarithmic function to confine the data range. IDFq a is the inverse document frequency of the query keyword q a. IDF is computed by taking the logarithmic ratio of the number of documents within the database and number of document have the query keyword q.

Figure 2 shows the algorithm procedure of the proposed FENN classifier. Algorithm procedure This section shows the experimental results of the proposed FENN classifier and the quantitative evaluation of the proposed classifier with the existing methods. For experimental analysis, we have five benchmark queries from TREC web track data [10]. The bench mark queries are intellectual property, foods for cancer patients, federal funding mental illness, criteria obtain us and home buying.

The web pages documents related to these queries are collected and it is given as input to the proposed web page retrieval scheme. Then, these five bench mark queries are given as input to the proposed system to retrieve the similar documents.

The retrieved documents are then analyzed using precision, recall and f-measure. Table 1 is the retrieved output for the two queries, federal funding mental illness and home buying. When k value is given as five, five web pages are retrieved from the input database. The web pages retrieved are exactly relevant to the input query as per table 1.

In order to analyze the performance of the proposed web page retrieval scheme, we apply five queries for the proposed system and the retrieved results are validated using precision, recall and f-measure. The quantitative output of five queries is taken as average for every k value and it is plotted in figure 3, 4 and 5. From the figure 3, we understand that the proposed FENN obtained the maximum precision value of From the figure 4, the maximum recall value of From the figure 5, the f-measure of The results showed that the performance is decreased for higher values of k but the proposed FENN outperformed the existing methods in all the metrics.

Precision plot Figure 4. F-measure plot We have presented a fuzzy included extended nearest neighbour classifier for web page retrieval. The proposed web page retrieval technique contains the construction of feature library and the classifying of the query input into a related category.

Then, relevant category is utilized to perform the retrieval of the web page documents. The proposed FENN classifier considers neighbours and neighbours of neighbour with fuzzy weighted formulae to For the experimentation, we collect web page document relevant to five benchmark queries and the experimentation is performed using precision, recall and f- measure.

The maximum F-measure of In future, efficient indexing structure can be developed to improve the retrieval performance. Lin, J. Jiang, and S. John Wilbur, K. Ma, M. Crawford, J. Sumiya, D. Kitayama, N. Tang and H. Zhao, C. Rui, Y. Karisani, M. Rahgozar, F. Oroumchian, „A query term re-weighting approach using document similarity“, Information Processing and Management, Gu, Z. Yang, G. Xu, M. Nakano, M. Toyoda, M.

Saber Iraji, H. Maghamnia, M. Modern Education and Computer Science, vol. Qi and B. Nie,, Y. Ma, S. Kwon and J. Lee, „Web Page Classification Based on k-nearest Neighbor Approach“, in Proceedings of the fifth international workshop on on Information retrieval with Asian languages, pp.

Indyk and R. Some people may not understand its technical meaning but they keep repeating this word every time an organisation is involved. The most crucial issue is to understand the in-depth meaning of the terminology, especially, for the decision makers in any company. Any misunderstanding would lead to wrong decision-making which can cost the organisation much time and resources. The internet is one of the most vital infrastructures needed to deploy this kind of technology which has become an important part of our lives.

This paper will discuss in detail the challenges and security issues that exist in the implementing of cloud computing service in most of the higher education initiations in Oman. In general, this paper will allow the organisations to choose where, when, and how they use cloud computing, and help the decision makers to play the right role in higher education institutions.

The higher institutions in Oman need to realise the full potential of their data systems in order to inform the strategic decisions of the future. Accordingly, there is no better way to achieve these unique needs than to adopt the cloud computing services. Arias defines cloud computing as a computing paradigm where a large pool of systems are linked either in private or public networks, to offer dynamically scalable infrastructure for major purposes such as application, data and file storage.

Similarly, cloud computing is a method of providing a set of shared computing resources including computing storage, networking, deployment platforms and business processes.

It provides developers and IT departments with an opportunity to focus on what is critical in order to avoid undifferentiated work such as capacity planning and maintenance. It has become popular following different models and deployment strategies that have been developed to meet specific needs of various users. Therefore, every type of cloud service provides organisations with various levels of control, flexibility and management. The decision makers at higher education initiation in Oman stand to benefit from understanding the general aspects of cloud computing.

The kind of cloud deployment that should be considered depends on Oman s particular performance, security requirements and the specific business goals.

Proper application of cloud computing in higher education institutions in Oman will help to change the way they operate and serve constituents. Moreover, it will offer the institutions the ability to serve the educators, administrators and students who possess technology devices. Deployment Models The type of cloud computing to deploy differs depending on the requirements. The Learning Management System LMS in higher education institutions in Oman can be managed by either of the following deployment models, with each having its specific features that support the needs of services offered and the users involved with the clouds.

Public Cloud-This cloud infrastructure can be accessed by the public on a commercial basis through a cloud service provider CSP. As such, the consumers are able to develop and deploy services with less financial The financial factor is attractive for higher education institutions as other deployment options are associated with higher capital expenditure requirements.

Private Cloud-This cloud infrastructure is maintained as well as operated for a specific organisation. These operations could be in-house or under the management of a third party still within the promises. Community Cloud-This cloud infrastructure is shared among various organisations that have common interests. If the higher education institutions were to adopt this type of cloud computing, they would be able to limit their capital expenditure costs in establishing the service as the costs are shared among the institutions.

Most probably, satellite campuses have the best chance of using cloud computing infrastructure. Hybrid Cloud-The hybrid cloud infrastructure hosts a number of clouds of every type.

However, these clouds allow data and applications to be moved from one cloud to the other through their interfaces. It can combine the public and private clouds that support the need to retain some data within an organisation.

It is a software that is deployed over the internet in the 21 st century. With SaaS, the providers license an application to their consumers as a service that is offered through a subscription in a pay-as-you-go model.

It can also be offered absolutely free when there is a chance to generate revenue from other streams such as user list sales. With SaaS, the education institutions will not need to think of whether the service is maintained or even how the infrastructure is managed.

Rather, the focus will be on how the software will be used. Consumers can access the various applications under SaaS through applications such as Google Docs, Gmail or through other devices such as ipads, laptops and smart phones.

Unlike other software used before, the SaaS model does not need a license or an upgrade for it to work. Other advantages of this model include its configurability and multitenant efficiency Chao, With respect to its common features, SaaS is managed from a central location and the software is delivered in a one to many model. It requires web access to commercial software, and the users are not required to handle any of the software upgrades and patches.

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