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Building the Navy’s Bases, vol. 2 (part III).

 

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The senior officer, Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, and his immediate staff occupied a large expanse in the E Ring with windows facing west toward Arlington Cemetery. The common area held cubicles with five-foot-high partitions for military and civilian personnel serving in two directorates – Military Personnel Management and Plans, Resources and Operations.

The bay also included a conference room, enclosed offices, spaces for contractors, and four copier areas. Occupants entered the office spaces through three doors – two leading from the 4th Corridor on the south, and one from the E Ring hallway; they could leave the area through three staircases, one in each of the E, D, and C Rings at the Corridor 4 end of the office.

Restrooms lay outside the space, along Corridor 4. The impact penetrated the 2nd Floor slab, scattering lethal. The Jet A fuel atomized and quickly combusted, causing explosive bursts as the plane hurtled into the building. A detonation feet inside the building resulted from a „fuel-air“ explosion after the Jet A tanks disintegrated on impact.

Here, as elsewhere, there was no uniform pattern of death and destruction. The vagaries of the fuel-air explosions and freakish blast effects meant deaths occurred randomly inside the Pentagon, with the occupants of seemingly more secure interior offices sometimes suffering worse fates than those nearer the outside wall.

Although the Army and Navy offices on the 1st Floor bore the brunt of the kinetic energy created by the aircraft striking the building, the DCSPER 2nd Floor offices also felt its effects as an immense upward force penetrated the reinforced concrete floors of the bays. These offices suffered chiefly from the fuel explosion and fire. Some notion of the intense heat in the 2nd Floor offices may be gained from the experience of Librarian of the Army Ann Parham, who had resumed work in the bay after watching television coverage of the second airliner striking the World Trade Center.

Fortunately, she had stepped away from her desk in 2D to send a fax to the library at Fort Benning, Georgia, and was returning to her office when the plane hit. A colleague in a nearby space, Marian Serva, was killed while seated at her desk. Recalling her own predicament, Parham described the heat as suffocating and the smoke-filled air as so dense that it „felt like I was in London and I actually had thought that I was in London and this was a very foggy Worse, she was coated by a mist of foul-smelling, dangerous Jet A fuel.

The fireball caused flash burns on her face and hands, her eyes were burning, and a flaming ceiling tile burned off a two-inch swath of hair. With help she made her way out of the bay and to the River Entrance and out of the building. When she arrived at the Alexandria Hospital in a Defense Protective Service car, still wearing her plastic Pentagon identification badge, she realized it had curled in the heat from the fire.

Doctors attended to her burns and a lacerated foot and broken toe. Still watching television in the 2nd Floor C Ring office of his absent civilian supervisor, Raymond Robinson, he felt the impact shake the building. Seated in Robinson’s chair, Zappalla suffered a blow on the head from falling ceiling tiles and was thrown against a wall.

Dazed but otherwise unhurt, he arose and got out of the office, swearing he would never again sit in his boss’s chair. On emerging from the office Zappalla saw fire coming toward him from the E Ring. Abruptly the flames changed direction, veering to the right in the direction of Corridor 5. Disoriented, he blundered about until he heard voices through the smoke that directed him to Corridor 4; from there rescuers assisted him to the A Ring, where he went first to the Center Court and then to South Parking.

For two civilians and two noncommissioned officers the erratic path of the fire proved their salvation. Seated across from one another in a quartet of cubicles, they heard radio reports of the attacks in New York.

Shortly thereafter, as the floor beneath them shuddered and fractured, they heard a bang followed by an explosion. Olaes felt her hair burn as the fire passed through the office. Screams of surprise and pain from other office occupants filled the air; furniture blew about and a blizzard of papers surged around them.

Petrovich looked for Webb and Olaes, but could find only Olaes in the smoke. The pair crawled below the smoke outward toward the E Ring exit, but when Petrovich felt the door hot to the touch and saw an orange glow radiating from under it, they turned around and headed inward towards the C Ring. Weaver, after seeing the fireball pass, initially headed towards the E Ring door as well, found it impassable, and escaped by going toward the inside of the building.

As the fireball roared through her area, Tracy Webb turned to escape the flames, which had set her hair afire. Batting out the fire in her hair, she saw Petrovich and Olaes heading towards the nearby E Ring exit and tried to follow, only to become lost among the cubicles and unable to find her way. Without realizing it, she was moving northward toward the D Ring exit.

Confused, and with little to guide her in the increasing gloom of the office, Webb panicked and stood up only to feel the heat and smoke sear her lungs as she tried to breathe. Sinking to the. Fortunately her desperate attempt to stand had brought her to the attention of Major Regina Grant, who had fled from 2E where she had been attending a meeting.

Convinced, too, that her end was near, Grant had given up moving and had started praying when she spotted Webb trying to stand. Grant crawled over, grabbed at Webb’s clothing, and pulled her down to the floor. Rose had been knocked down by the blast and had gotten out of his C Ring cubicle to join others in leading survivors out of the bay to safety.

When Rose answered Grant’s cry, Grant and Webb followed the sound of his voice, staggered over to Corridor 4, and met up with him. They escaped down the corridor into the Center Court. At the moment of impact, Dr.

Betty Maxfield, an Army demographer who had come from her office at 2B, stood at Tracy Webb’s desk talking about personnel matters. Maxfield remembered „a fireball went passing through the area in which I [was] standing And everything went black The smoke was very, very dense.

And the burning ceiling tiles began to drop on us like hot cinder balls The only damage to me personally was that the hair on my arms In two separate groups, one led by Petrovich, the crawlers reached the C Ring windows at A-E Drive several minutes apart. For Olaes, Webb, Petrovich, Weaver, and Maxfield, their good fortune came about because the Jet A fuel had largely passed over their heads without exploding.

Army people further inside the building were not so lucky. Explosions on the 1st Floor directed energy upward with such force that they ripped and „buckled and penetrated“ the concrete deck of the 2nd Floor. Because the previous meeting had been postponed, this one in 2E ran long, so that at a. As Marilyn Wills was making her report to the group, Flight 77 struck. One attendee later remembered seeing a fireball behind Carden at the north end of the table; then the lights went out and parts of the ceiling came down at Carden’s end as well.

Several conferees in the room, including McNair, shouted to get down on the floor below the smoke that filled the room. Grunewald called out to Carden, and when she „yelled, help Wills found the door to the flame-engulfed hallway, but it was locked, so the participants reversed direction and headed out into the DCSPER office bay.

The bay was dark and eerily quiet. In the smoke and great heat, they quickly split into smaller groups, each seeking to find the best way out by crawling below the smoke.

Holding on to Grunewald’s belt, Carden followed him into the bay towards Corridor 4. Grunewald, the most familiar with the area, cleared debris from their path through the office. With others following, Grunewald and Carden continued crawling, the officer encouraging his companion to keep moving. Competing with his words was the recurring sound of the Pentagon alarm system, repeating, „Attention, a fire emergency has been declared in the building. Please evacuate.

Shortly thereafter Grunewald realized he was no longer on carpeting but on the tile floor of Corridor 4 at the C Ring exit. The pair stood up and headed inward toward the A Ring. Subsequently, Grunewald went back into the stricken area at the C Ring to look for other survivors, but the roiling black smoke that discouraged even crawling along the floor forced him to turn back.

Carden was escorted to safety in the. Center Court, followed shortly after by Grunewald. They made their way out of the building to North Parking. Both later received hospital treatment. Carden later said: „I absolutely could not have done it. Rob literally saved my life.

Fortunately, most of the others in the conference room also managed to escape. Carden especially was lucky, as her office 2D was opposite the E Ring hallway, where she would have been instantly killed at her desk, as were most of her colleagues, McNair and the other escapees got out into Corridor 4 and headed for the inside of the building. Sadly, one pair did not reach safety. Johnson and Long got out of the conference room only to perish in the E Ring near the bay’s exit door after becoming trapped in the inferno there.

They may have taken the wrong turn, as several staircases around the DCSPER spaces were blocked and inaccessible because the fuel-fed fire had already spread over two floors. Another group from the meeting had an equally harrowing experience. Wills and Lois Stevens began crawling toward the back of the bay. They feared they would collapse from the smoke until a sprinkler doused them with water, soaking their clothes and allowing them to use some of the clothes as filters.

At one point Wills carried another woman on her back as she crawled. Wills, Stevens, and later Maxfield followed McNair and crawled through the darkness and smoke to the back of the office bay next to A-E Drive where they found Specialist Petrovich and Dalisay Olaes at the windows. Finding no way to open one of the renovated windows, Petrovich had picked up a nearby laser printer and begun hammering away at the already bowed window and its twisted steel frame. Joined in the effort by McNair, who got on the sill and used his feet to push out the frame, the two finally managed to create a human-size opening.

McNair and Petrovich then lifted Stevens to the window ledge and lowered her out of the opening, not letting go of her wrists until she had only a short distance to fall into the arms of catchers below. Stevens did not realize she had a broken foot until she was let down on the ground. The military and civilian rescuers in A-E Drive cushioned her fall, then did the same with Maxfield and Olaes; the latter sustained a broken leg. Petrovich, who had begun to.

Wills and McNair repeatedly called out for additional survivors. Finding none, the colonel lowered Wills to the driveway and then dropped down the wall to safety. Suffering from burns and smoke inhalation, Petrovich eventually reached Walter Reed Army Medical Center where he spent several days in treatment. Also at Walter Reed, Wills received extended treatment for similar injuries and a frozen shoulder. Olaes underwent an operation on her leg at Virginia Hospital Center. Stevens, too, spent the night being treated in the hospital.

Turning away from the view of the World Trade Center, he recalled he had moved about 20 feet toward his cubicle in 2D when he heard and felt a „loud concussion“ and was thrown on the floor. The lights went out and in the dark room Beans could see small fires burning around him. He tried to escape through the nearby E Ring door, only to see fireballs rolling down the corridor. He hurriedly shut the door and turned back into the bay, crawling below the dense smoke.

Part way through the bay the sprinklers began spraying water on him and he heard the automated system announcing the fire. He crawled slowly and painfully to the C Ring wall where he wielded a chair in a vain attempt to smash one of the windows overlooking A-E Drive.

Beans then decided to try to reach Corridor 4 and crawled through C Ring as fast as he could. When he felt the tile floor of Corridor 4, he paused to catch his breath, and then got up and ran for the safety of the A Ring.

Overcoming pervasive confusion from the suddenness of the attack, the cataclysmic and unpredictable nature of the fire, and the lack of visibility brought on by the choking smoke, most of DCSPER’s office workers evacuated speedily and helped each other as best they could. Individually or in small groups they managed to improvise escape routes. Although many of its people escaped, DCSPER suffered 29 military and civilian including 4 contractor employees dead and 27 injured.

As he was returning to his office he heard a „very loud explosion. Birdwell tasted jet fuel vapor and suffered severe burns over much of his body. Soon he felt cool water on his face as the ceiling sprinklers came on, providing him a measure of relief and hope.

Dazed, he struggled to stand up and managed to stagger down the corridor toward the B Ring until he collapsed again. This time he was seen by Colonel Roy Wallace, Colonel Karl Knoblauch, and others who, after securing emergency treatment for Birdwell, carried him to a nearby triage point from where he was evacuated to Georgetown University Hospital in Washington and later to the Washington Hospital Center.

Although he could not have imagined it during his agonizing ordeal, Birdwell was lucky. Had he been in his office he would not have survived. Two people who were in his office, Cheryle Sincock and Sandra Taylor, were killed.

When Flight 77 struck the building the concussion blew Wood out of his chair and onto the floor. Outside his bulging windows, he could see flames; smoke began filling the office.

Unable to open his jammed office door he frantically pounded on it. Fortunately his deputy, Brigadier General Karl Eikenberry, who had been thrown against the wall of his own office, was alerted to his boss’s plight by the screams of Linda Moore, Wood’s secretary.

Unable to open the door manually, Eikenberry lay down on the floor and kicked it in, freeing Wood from what would have been certain death. Wood, Eikenberry, and others emerged into the blackness of E Ring, where the floor had already buckled. Uncertain about escape routes, after some false starts they turned into Corridor 4, collecting people from offices as they went, urging them on toward the A Ring through the thickening smoke.

Eikenberry and several other officers remained behind for a time in the C Ring to assist others. The group made their way to the Center Court, where they encountered what Wood described as „pandemonium. Unfortunately, in an office next to Wood’s, there were two fatalities – Major Wallace Hogan, executive officer to Major General Philip Kensinger, assistant deputy chief of staff for operations and plans, and the general’s secretary, Diane Hale-McKinzy.

Their bodies were found on the 1st Floor. Both died of multiple blunt force injuries and smoke inhalation. On the 4th Floor, above the direct impact area in Wedge 1, occupants of the Marine Corps Office of the General Counsel counted themselves fortunate that they did not suffer the fate of Army and Navy offices on the floors below. General Counsel Peter Murphy, in Room 4E, remembered hearing a „huge noise, louder than any noise I’ve ever heard before.

He saw a huge fireball at the window and the ceiling started to fall in. But the windows just stood absolutely tall and never splintered, never cracked, nothing. Unlike most other survivors, Murphy and his companions „were pretty certain it was a plane and it was a terrorist,“ even though they had not seen the plane coming in.

They had been watching the attack on the Twin Towers and had speculated about such an attack on the Pentagon. The office began filling with smoke. The office administrative clerk, Corporal Timothy Garofola, succeeded after a few minutes in forcing open the heavy. After making certain that their other offices were clear of people, they made their way to Corridor 4, noticing flames coming up through the floor seams.

Through the black smoke they heard „Follow my voice. Follow my voice. After rejecting going to the Center Court and failing to get through to North Parking, they emerged into South Parking. Murphy recollected that „once we got down to the second deck there were now hundreds and hundreds of people all going in different directions.

Most, very disciplined and moving quick and not running, but moving quickly. Elsewhere on the 4th Floor the damage was immediately evident. Commander Joan Zitterkopf, a Navy helicopter pilot assigned to a training aircraft redesign group, was standing at her desk in 4C at the moment of impact. Actually standing astride one of the Pentagons expansion joints, Zitterkopf felt the shift of the seam between her feet and later remembered „one foot going up and it felt like one foot going down. The bright orange fireball she saw through a window left no doubt in her mind that the Pentagon was under attack.

Recovering her balance, Zitterkopf joined colleagues in filing out of the office. Black smoke from the fuel fire spewed down Corridor 4 toward them. One of the Pentagons new automatic smoke and fire suppression doors began to close across the corridor, adding to her anxiety. These doors had not been demonstrated to Pentagon occupants, nor had their override switches been made known to them; the corridor barriers deployed automatically to limit the spread of smoke and fire. This one threatened to block Zitterkopf’s exit.

She instinctively ran to the door and somehow tripped the override switch, locking it open to permit escape from the smoke-filled side of the door.

Keeping up their pace along the corridor, the evacuees walked down the escalators in the A Ring and eventually reached the safety of North Parking. There were no fatalities on the 5th Floor, but only because the occupants of the E Ring offices managed to fight their way out before the floor, directly above the impact zone, collapsed. Fortunately, because the 5th Floor was. The largest and best organized group that escaped, 30 Navy civilian employees of the Surface Warfare Group from Crane, Indiana, had come to Washington as part of an industrial management course.

Shortly after a. As she began answering questions after the conclusion of her remarks, the attendees felt the building lurch and saw a light fixture and ceiling tiles fall as smoke began spilling from air vents. Captain Dennis Kern, Livingstones executive assistant, had a vivid recollection of a „very loud explosion“ that „rocked the room.

Livingstone instinctively exclaimed „there has been a terrorist event And we need to evacuate and get out of here. Kern was the only one who knew the 5th Floor layout. Because none of the offices on the floor had windows facing the outside of the building, neither the meeting participants nor the occupants of other offices in the E Ring had a clear notion of what had happened. While these offices were not seriously damaged, light fixtures had dropped from the ceiling and hung loosely from their cables, and broken acoustic ceiling tiles lay across the floor in the corridor, adding to the uncertainty of movement.

As moments passed the air filled with the black smoke spewing from the ventilators, making it hard to see and breathe. When Livingstone and Kern tried to descend the same staircase that they had used to get to the meeting, they found the way blocked. Later inspection revealed that the explosion had made the stairwell into a chimney full of smoke and flames.

Unable to get through to Corridor 5 because of the wooden construction barrier wall across the E Ring near the conference room, Livingstone and Kern turned back toward Corridor 4, encountering some 15 people who had emerged into the hallway from another Navy office. One of this group, Gail Wirick, customarily used a motorized wheelchair to move about the Pentagon. This time, with the help of two colleagues, she used a walker to evacuate her office.

On the 4th Floor, departing Navy workers encountered a disabled custodian with limited language comprehension. Clearly disoriented by the alarm and smoke, she had to be escorted out of the building. When another effort to use a staircase in the direction of Corridor 5 proved futile, Livingstone and Kern concluded that the route toward Corridor 4 offered the only escape and reversed direction in the E Ring once again, encountering a drop of about eight inches in the floor at the major building expansion joint next to the area that later collapsed.

Livingstone warned those behind her of the downward „step“; the warning was passed down the line. At this point, the evacuees were walking directly over the impact area hit by the airliner minutes earlier. The drop traced the line of an expansion joint of the building where the upper four floors were nearing collapse because of the loss of supporting columns below.

Almost 40 minutes after the initial impact, that section of the E Ring collapsed. Pressing forward, many holding hands by this time, the group turned into Corridor 4.

Without their support Wirick would have been unable to manage on her own with her walker, which she eventually abandoned. As the group emerged into Corridor 4 the smoke became so black and dense it forced them to crawl, still hanging on to one another. Low to the floor along Corridor 4 and scarcely able to see their way, they could feel the heat from the burning floor below.

Unexpectedly, they heard a voice calling through the black smoke,“Is anybody back there? The caller, Commander Dan Braswell, had gotten out of his office, 5D, into Corridor 4, immediately after impact.

He and some fellow officers „looked to the left and realized hey, there’s nobody coming from the E Ring yet. So we started yelling back there,“ Braswell urged the Livingstone group to continue moving and drew their attention to an emergency strobe light flashing from a place of relative safety.

As the smoke thinned to a gray haze, the evacuees stood up. When Kern saw a fire and smoke suppression door closing across the 4th Corridor, threatening to block their path out of the building, he quickly leapt forward, smashed it back against the wall, and held it open.

After the group passed that point, the smoke in the air thinned, and they emerged into the A Ring. Livingstone and Kern, separated from the rest of the group, descended to the 1st Floor, where, instead of exiting into the Center Court, they made their way to the Concourse and out to South Parking.

The Crane group, still pretty much together, also left the building. Using verifiable time references, members concluded that their harrowing journey had taken about 15 minutes. Along with thousands of other evacuees the Crane group had to move further away from the building when warning of a second aircraft attack on the Pentagon before the collapse at a.

In North and South Parking, evacuees were pushed further and further back until they were hundreds of yards away. Concern for others, particularly in the area most affected by the impact, was almost universally reflected in the anxiously repeated efforts by office leaders and staff members to account for all of their colleagues. They checked and rechecked to ensure that all known to them had gotten out safely.

Once outside, they searched among the milling crowds until they accounted for all of their people. Some went back into the building in an effort to get a complete tally. Sadly, they had to accept that not all had reached safety. Within minutes of the crash, the toll of Pentagon occupants dead and injured stood distressingly high.

In addition to the killed, not counting the Army employee who died of injuries days later, the Arlington County Fire Department reported that of the victims transported to hospitals, 49 were admitted.

This was especially so for those in the newly refurbished Army and Navy offices on the 1st and 2nd Floors as well as those on the upper floors.

Both military and civilians, in spite of their fear and confusion in the chaos that engulfed them, displayed uncommon courage and comradeship in assisting one another to escape the stricken building.

About a hundred more received treatment for minor injuries on site. There could not have been as many survivors of the attack on the Pentagon without the persistent and selfless acts of others – military and civilian – who were themselves caught in the maelstrom or came unhesitatingly from elsewhere in the building to respond to the desperate circumstances facing the many victims trapped in the wreckage. The suddenness and split-second penetration of the attack, followed by the instantaneous havoc wrought in the stricken area, allowed no time for organized rescue efforts.

Necessarily, much of the assistance rendered by rescuers came from the improvised action of individuals or small groups. Men and women from within the devastated area – themselves directly threatened by fire, smoke, and explosive force – provided the leadership, encouragement, and physical assistance that enabled hundreds of shaken and injured people to escape death.

From elsewhere in the building outside the immediately affected area, daring rescuers, with a minimum of equipment and relying only on their knowledge of the building and sheer will, plunged into the smoke and debris of corridors and offices to seek out bloodied and burned survivors and deliver them from the inferno.

Others entered the burning E Ring from outside the building and helped victims they described as „charred“ to reach safety. Using flashlights and voice direction they showed lost and disoriented wanderers the.

Some, perhaps many of the rescuers, risked their own lives or, at the very least, injury. Almost all of the successful rescues of survivors occurred within the first half hour after the attack.

For all the daring acts, in some instances, especially subsequent to the initial response, the large numbers of impatient military and civilian volunteers seeking to engage in independent actions compounded confusion and impeded the work of the firefighters.

When the first fire companies arrived only minutes after the impact to assist in the rescue efforts, they found volunteers searching for survivors in parts of the building near the impact site.

The firefighters ordered them to leave the building because they were not trained or equipped to deal with the dangerous conditions they encountered. As the volunteers were forced to abandon the search, they congregated outside at the Heliport, in the Center Court, and in A-E Drive.

They organized into groups to assist medical and firefighting efforts however they might. Some teams served as stretcherbearers; others lined up ready to follow the firefighters into the building and bring out survivors. Their impatience was reined in when the collapse of the ruptured E Ring made it clear that what remained to be done was a job for professionals. Anxious to assist, volunteers of all ranks donned gloves, handled IV bags, grabbed backboards, and provided other services.

At one point, feeling that the professional emergency responders were not doing everything they should, some volunteers tried to get back into the building; Defense Protective Service officers helped the firefighters block them. Luckily, the officer leading the squad cooperated. Fort Myer firefighter Sergeant Thomas Hodge understood the volunteers’ desire to reenter the building but knew they could not help and would only put others in jeopardy.

The last thing the firefighters needed was „another victim. On receiving reports from his officers that throngs of volunteers were impeding the firefighters and EMS workers, Incident Commander James Schwartz, assistant chief of the Arlington County Fire Department, left the command post to investigate.

When he encountered an Army brigadier general and a line of soldiers protected only by thin dust masks preparing to go into the Pentagon he confronted them. Asserting command of the site, he ordered that all nonemergency people be prevented from going inside the building. Schwartz believed the order saved the life of one defiant soldier seeking to enter who got into a scuffle with firefighters shortly before the E Ring collapsed.

He later explained that while he respected the „truly heroic“ efforts of the civilian and military rescuers, such „freelancing“ was inexcusable and could lead to death and injury. Still, the effect on the D Ring offices was life-threatening. The shock wave blew people over, caused walls and ceilings to collapse, and flung furniture about.

The rubble, fires, and dense smoke threatened to thwart the occupants’ frantic struggles to escape. Members of the QDR office who managed to get out testified to the generally calm and purposeful behavior of their colleagues in effecting the rescue of most of those in the office. Most of the officers there possessed command experience and were trained to deal with emergencies, albeit not this particular one. Colonels Mark Perrin and Sean Kelly and Captain Darrell Oliver, the last initially rendered unconscious for a time by a blow to the head, led others out of the badly damaged, smoke-filled area.

Twice Oliver carried frightened people on his back, scaling debris and climbing over a ruined office wall. The first was the office secretary, who had been blown from one office into another and covered by debris. He described her as „not emotionally able to get over that wall I didn’t have time to debate with Desiree, so I said, hey, just get. I took her and threw her on my back and scaled the wall and there Meanwhile, Perrin assisted others and sought to account for all of his people.

Once over the wall, the survivors made their way into the E Ring and down Corridor 5 toward the exit to the outside.

In A-E Drive a group of approximately 20 – civilians and Army, Marine, Navy, and Air Force officers and enlisted men – mounted dangerous but successful rescue efforts. The two young Marines were discussing the attack on the World Trade Center when Flight 77 hit the building. The blast knocked Schuetz to the floor and slammed Vera and his chair into a wall where his books and manuals fell on him.

Undeterred, the two collected themselves, helped their panicked and confused colleagues evacuate the offices down Corridor 5, and pointed them the way to leave the building.

As Vera described it, „myself and Cpl. Schuetz, we just, I guess, did a telepathic connection or whatever you want to call it Responding to screams and pleas for help from trapped victims, the rescuers entered the dense smoke and fumes and the flames of the C Ring through the holes in the wall with only rudimentary equipment – handheld fire extinguishers, a single flashlight, and shirts dampened in the ankle-deep water in A-E Drive for use as face masks against the suffocating smoke.

The only illumination other than from the flashlight came from the flames. Because of the choking, toxic smoke, parties of three or four rescuers crawled in relays into the destroyed areas, where they had to dig through and move collapsed furnishings and rubble to create exit routes for trapped victims.

To protect their skin from fire and heat, they rolled in pools of standing water in A-E Drive, despite which some of them suffered burns. When teams could no longer bear the heat and smoke inside, they retreated to A-E Drive and handed over the meager equipment to another group to use in the rescue effort. By the time firefighters relieved them these daring rescuers had made a number of forays into the smoking, ruined space. In a period of perhaps 30 to 40 minutes Schuetz and Vera estimated that the group saved a dozen people suffering from cuts, burns, and smoke inhalation.

Fortunately, the two Marines incurred only minor injuries. Schuetz later explained what drove them. It may sound corny to somebody that But we were mentally prepared and we just used instinct and went directly into the smoke. Somebody was hurt, we’re military, and that’s what we’ve got to do. His office, 4A in Wedge 2, did not experience the direct impact of the collision.

Aware of the attacks in New York City, Tarantino suddenly „felt a violent shudder and a loud explosion. Making his way to smoke-filled Corridor 4, he moistened paper towels in nearby restrooms, passing them out to persons with breathing trouble, while continuing on toward the impact area.

When the smoke and noxious fumes became too dense for Tarantino to walk upright, he dropped to the floor and crawled slowly on his belly. He moved down to the lower floors and at each level helped dazed and confused people to reach the Center Court. Moving on to A-E Drive, Tarantino encountered human remains, a large hole in the C Ring wall, a large airplane tire, and smoke billowing along the roadway.

Cries for help coming from trapped victims compelled response. Thomas later explained that he „went to the scene because that was where It was just an instinctive thing for me. I don’t even know why, but it was like being back on the ship. You go to where your shipmates are having a problem. Unbeknownst to Thomas, Dolan was already dead. Of this multi-service party the general, who had organized a medical rescue team, later observed, „I don’t know how we could get any more joint than that.

The initiative is part of an effort by Army officials to meet year- end recruiting goals after a two -month slump earlier this year.

With the fis- cal year ending Sept. The program began on July 25, and in just three weeks the Army had enlisted 3, recruits using the bonus, according to the U. Those recruits accounted for 92 percent of the 4, recruits who signed contracts between July 25 and Aug. Bethany Moore, 19, of Jessup, Md. Although she expected a six- month waiting period to go to basic training, she learned of the bonus and immediately accepted.

She will ship out within a week. They also said the rush to get people into uniform might have more to do with meeting numerical targets than with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, though many of those who join the Army face the possibility of a deployment to combat soon.

President Bush is due to arrive in Sydney on Sept. Laura Bush injured a nerve in her neck and shoulder earlier this year while hiking and has been treated with physical therapy since, McDonough said. Her doc- tors have strongly advised her to not travel overseas, ap Democratic presidential hopeful John Edwards speaks in Manchester, N. One coupon per customer. One coupon per system. The most amazing change is yet to come. The operation of the new secu- rity thread looks like something straight out of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

It com- It is a really complex optical structure on a microscopic scale. The lenses magnify the micro-print- ing in a remarkable way. Move the bill side to side and the image appears to move up and down. Move the bill up and down and the image appears to move from side to side. The Dalton, Mass. Larry Felix, director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, confirmed details of the plan. The total lunar eclipse, the sec- ond this year, will be visible in North and South America, especially in the West.

The full eclipse will be visible across the United States, but East Coast residents will have only about a half-hour to see it before the sun begins to rise and the moon sets. No Braces. For more information, coll Principal Andrew Touchette, x Call Now: Disclaimer:The information provided at the workshop is not designed to diagnose or treat any medical condition. It is purely educational and is based on the book, The 7 Principles of Fat Burning. Speaker Dr. Thetraditional garb is still worn today by some Austrian and German men.

The offi- cials said the meeting would take place Tuesday afternoon in Jeru- salem. They spoke on condition of anonymity because no formal announcement has been made. Police blamed Islamist insurgents for the attacks. Clinton and Sen. During the meeting, attended by U. With the investigation into the latest bombings — which target- ed areas frequented by both Hin- dus and Muslims — just getting under way Sunday, officials were again pointing the finger at foreign Islamic militants.

The year- old Castro has not been seen in public in over a year and has not even appeared in offi- cial photographs or video footage since taping an interview with Cuban state television June 5. The lack of images has fueled speculation among the Cuban exile community in Miami and elsewhere that Castro might have died.

He announced on July 31, that he had undergone intestinal surgery and was temporarily ced- ing power to his brother Raul. At least 58 people have died in the blazes, some of which may have been set on purpose. New fires broke out faster than others could be brought under control. Vast swaths of the coun- try, particularly in the south, were obliterated. Desperate residents appealed through television sta- tions for help from a firefighting service already stretched to the limit.

Many blamed authorities for leaving them defenseless. One front of fire reached Ancient Olympia in southern Greece, burn- ing trees and shrubs near the muse- um inside the 2, -year-old site, one of the most revered of antiq- uity.

Helicopters and aircraft dropped water and foam, covering the ruins. The flames reached the edge of the ancient stadium, searing the grass and incinerating the trees on the hill above. Volunteers grabbed buckets of water and joined firefighters. Aid groups say the refugees are scared and hungry, and relief work- ers are struggling to provide them with suppliess in the Ecuadorean town of San Lorenzo. But officials in Ecuador said that by Saturday the number had increased to about 1, There are currently about , refugees living in Ecua- dor, the U.

Most of them are Colombians who have fled an internal armed con- flict that has raged there for more than 40 years. The U. Since September, when Abe took office, the government has been hit by a series of scandals that have led to the departure of four Cabinet ministers. Despite mounting calls for his resignation, and support dwindling Abe has vowed to stay in office to push through reforms, ap Shop where your contractor shops.

Classes meet evenings and weekends to accommodate your schedule. Infectious Viral Disease Blamed for Deer Death An infectious viral disease killed one deer in Cumberland County and is suspected among the white -tail population in several other counties, state game officials said.

The disease does not pose a risk to humans or pets, officials said. Teacher Shortages Continue To Plague Virginia Schools School districts in Virginia and other states are preparing to deal with teacher shortages as baby boomers are retiring, new teach- ers are leaving the profession and the number of students in class- rooms is growing. The hardest- to-fill positions continue to be in math, science, special education and elementary education.

The teachers say higher salaries and less demand- ing working conditions would help. Middle Schools Allow Cellphones Montgomery County students can now carry devices for emergencies With the start of a new school year Monday, middle school stu- dents in Montgomery County will be allowed to carry — though not use — their cellphones at school without violating the code of con- duct.

School boards everywhere are revisiting decade-old bans against portable communication devices in the classroom. Enacted with dire visions of drug dealers plying their trade, the rules have instead become an impediment to lacrosse moms trying to negotiate pick-up times. Parents also are vexed by the notion that their children might not be allowed to call home during an emergency, the very scenario for which many such phones are purchased.

Montgomery lawmakers and school board members led a cam- Time-Tested Technology A yearlong field test proves that maturity and academic dishonesty issues are not major concerns for adolescents carrying cellphones in the classroom.

But in subsequent years, the privilege to carry cellphones in the county was extended only to high school students. NW for an outdoor church service followed by a mass baptism by fire hose on Sunday in Washington. More than 70 candidates for the Virginia General Assembly and county offices showed up Saturday in Reston to tout their records and issue campaign promises to the fast-growing community.

More than 56, Muslims are registered to vote in Northern Virginia, and last year, more than eight in 10 turned out to vote. ARepublican del- egate said he will introduce legis- lation that would cut state fund- ing to local governments that do not check on the immigration sta- tus of residents who receive public assistance.

Frederick said the legislation would toughen a Virginia law that prohibits local govern- ments from providing some social services to illegal immigrants. Not, mind you, at the iPhone itself, but mad at cellphone man- ufacturers who have saddled us for years with interfaces that lure us into labyrinths of menus.

The iPhone has one button on its face. It always does the same thing: takes you to the top menu, where icons representing all functions of the phone — music player, Internet browser and more — are laid out in a clear manner. It rents time on Sprint Nextel Corp.

This gives it a leg up over the iPhone and N95, which both use slower data networks, sup- plemented by Wi-Fi. Push it side- ways, and you get a keyboard. The basic theory of user interface design states that you should keep the number of different modes to a minimum. This theory seems to have been hammered into the designers of the iPhone. Sure, the iPhone has its annoy- ances.

The headphone jack is deeply recessed. Fulfill the edueational requirements for eertifieation and establish yourself as one of the industry’s elite professionals with eredentials that will make you stand out. Once his legs got pumping, he caught and surged past Asafa Powell to claim his first gold medal at a major inter- national championship in 9. Olympic box- ing trials.

Russell beat Marroquin to win the -pound spot on the Olympic team, while Raynell Williams won to take the -pound berth. The 19 -year- old Russell, of Capitol Heights, Md. She regards it as an honor. The two were the bedrock of the U. But the journeyman guard hopes that his two -game stint as a starter reminded the Redskins of what he can bring to them.

But he got his chance after Todd Wade strug- gled and injured his shoulder in the preseason opener. In two starts against Pitts- burgh and Baltimore, Pucillo was solid, though he was involved in the pass protection failure on the play in which quarterback Jason Campbell injured his knee against the Steelers.

But Pucillo showed he can capably fill in if Kendall gets injured. The Redskins already knew that Pucillo was experienced and versatile. The year before he came to Washington, Pucillo started six games at three different positions during an eight-game stretch with the Cleveland Browns.

Pucillo also filled in at center against Philadelphia in December when starter Casey Rabach left the game with a broken hand. Open, Venus at Wimbledon. They are the primary reason the U. Open in through Wimble- don in , the Williams sis- ters combined to win 10 of the 16 Grand Slam tournaments.

And I thought that was really going to change history. I The amount, in millions of dollars, the Falcons will try to reclaim t t from Michael Vick, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported. Elmer Dessens gave up a run and three hits in six innings I rado win, and the Rockies moved within games of the San Diego Padres in the NL wild-card race. Holliday and Todd Helton had three hits each, and Troy Tulowitzki drove in three runs for the Rockies.

All 10 Colorado runs were scored with two outs. Church hit a two -run homer in the seventh and Kearns had a two -run double in the eighth that made it After going 6 34 years and tournaments without win- ning, Strieker birdied four of his last five holes at The Barclays for a turnaround that gave him a 2 -under 69 and a two -shot victory over K. Rory Sabba- tini, who had a share of the lead at the turn, closed with a 68 to finish another stroke back and moved up to No.

Tiger Woods skipped the first of four playoff events and tumbled to No. Rondell White homered for the Twins, who finished 7- 0 against Bal- timore this year. Freddie Bynum had three hits for the Orioles, who have been out- scored during a six-game los- ing streak that began the day the team announced manager Dave Trembley would return in The left-hand- er gave up six runs, six hits and a career high-tying five walks in six innings, david ginsburg ap Join the Porsche Club of America Take your obsession to the next level.

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The jubilant kids from War- ner Robins hugged Carriker as he reached the plate. A relieved man- ager Mickey Lay lost his hat after joining his team in celebration following a tense game marked by excellent pitching. But not before being pushed to the brink of elimination in the opening round of the Eastern Con- ference playoffs.

Cheryl Ford scored 11 points, capped by a wide-open layup with 44 seconds remaining, and the Shock held off the New York Liberty 7d in Game 2 Sunday to force a decisive game Tuesday. The Shock held on for the win after watching a point second- half lead evaporate during 7 minutes at the end of the fourth quarter.

After Swin Cash and Ashley Battle traded baskets. Open begins with early round play in New York. Roger Federer is scheduled to play American Scoville Jenkins. Carson Palmer promo- tion.

They get Joey Harrington instead. Angels 75 O Texas 57 Mets 73 Louis 62 Dodgers 66 He is eager to talk about his new movie, a dramatic thriller Indie-popsters the New Pornographers.

There was no fat. Everything we shot, we used. Case, whose solo albums have gained her a hefty following, lends all the right soulful notes on the title track about impaired love. He will sign books and hold adiscussiontonight. Busboys and Poets, 14th St. NW; p. Many critics consider Watson oneofthelastauthen- tic voices in country music. NW; 6p. Please send press releases and photos to expressevents readexpress.

Douglas MacArthur. It was always in the back of his mind. He had a gift for friendship. What are you up to? And these ideas always came from the book he was currently working on. In the year before he died, he had about four ideas for the Korean War novel he thought I should write.

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Own vehicle req’d. Driver TrackerTailor — Class A. Apply at Lydell Rd. MD Master License Appl. Send resume via email to: electrical uplink. The solution to the problem was clearly underground bombproof storage tanks, located at points removed from the harbor. At the same time, it had become increasingly apparent that in event of war, additional fuel-handling facilities would be required. All Navy vessels were fueled at the Panama Canal docks at Balboa and Cristobal, with the exception of diesel-powered craft based at Coco Solo.

The Balboa farm had only limited bunkering facilities at the congested Panama Canal docks, had no reserve capacity, had no land for expansion, and could not be developed as a terminal for the proposed Trans-Isthmian pipeline. In January , the Secretary of the Navy recommended that the commanding general of the Canal Zone call a conference of all interested parties, including the governor of the Canal Zone and the commandant of the 15th Naval District, to develop a project for placing all storage of liquid fuels underground at the earliest practicable date.

Four localities were considered, final decision being left to the Navy. Plans were also considered for a pipe line connecting both coasts in order to replace tanker shipment through the Canal, but the difficulties and cost of construction caused that matter to be dropped until , when the course of the war made it a project of vital urgency. In June , the Navy Fuel Storage Board submitted its report relative to the quantity, type, and location of liquid fuel storage to be provided in the 15th Naval District.

It recommended fuel oil, 1,, barrels; diesel oil, , barrels; aviation gasoline, 5,, gallons; and suggested distribution of storage on the Pacific and Atlantic sides in proportions of 60 and 40 percent, respectively. It was further recommended that an additional reserve 3,, gallons of gasoline be stored on the Atlantic side near Coco Solo, in order to be readily available to the naval air station, and that on the Pacific side, 2,, gallons of reserve gasoline storage be combined into a single project under the cognizance of the Army.

All storage was to be underground. The sites selected were a acre tract, near Cristobal, designated the Gatun farm, and an acre tract near Balboa, known as the Arraijan farm. The original scope of the Gatun project, which was begun in February , included fifteen 27,barrel steel tanks for fuel oil, two 27,barrel gasoline tanks, and four pumphouses.

When emergency conditions required more extensive underground oil-storage, the Gatun project was enlarged in May and September , and again in January It eventually included fifteen 27,barrel and eleven 50,barrel steel tanks and seven 27,barrel tanks of pre-stressed concrete. The Gatun tank farm was connected with the existing tank Mount Hope farm of the Panama Canal and the Cristobal piers by two inch lines for fuel oil and two inch lines for diesel oil.

Booster pump stations were constructed in the line to enable a tanker to discharge at the rate of 8, barrels per hour for fuel oil and 6, barrels per hour for diesel oil. The development of the tank farm at Arraijgan progressed concurrently with the project at Gatun.

Planned originally to consist of eighteen 27,barrel. Two inch and one inch pipelines connected the farm with the fueling piers at Balboa. The tanks, pump-houses, all design details, and method of construction were similar to the Gatun project.

To provide reserve storage for aviation gasoline, seven 13,barrel steel tanks were installed in the naval magazine area, adjacent to the Coco Solo air station. This project, which likewise was begun in February, eventually expanded to include five additional tanks of 27,barrel capacity for ready diesel-oil storage to supply the submarine base. These were connected through an 8-inch pipe to the eight 25,gallon tanks at the air station.

The diesel tanks were, in similar fashion, connected with the Panama Canal tanks at Mount Hope, the fueling piers at Cristobal, and, eventually, with the tank farm at Gatun, making the entire system mutually flexible. Japanese seizure of the oil fields in the Netherlands East Indies during the early days of the war made it necessary to rely entirely on the Americas for oil deliveries to the Pacific theater of operations.

With a large portion of the United States refineries located along the Gulf of Mexico and the East Coast, and those in South America likewise accessible from the Atlantic and Caribbean, fuel deliveries to the Pacific depended upon the use of tankers and the Panama Canal. A certain and continued supply of liquid fuel was a strategic imperative. During the summer of , German submarines took a heavy toll of our tanker fleet plying the Atlantic and the Caribbean, which, apart from the loss of oil involved in these sinkings, seriously reduced the number of fast tankers available to transport oil in the quantities needed.

These losses were a matter of grave concern in view of the oil demands involved in future operations planned for the Pacific campaign. Accordingly, the installation of the proposed pipe line across the Isthmus, connecting the Gatun and Arraijan tank farms, became a project of immediate military necessity.

Such a pipe line would confine the use of older, smaller, and slower tankers to a shuttle service between the fueling piers at Cristobal, the supply sources along the Gulf of Mexico, and the huge refineries at the Dutch islands of Aruba and Curacao.

It would also serve to eliminate tanker traffic through the Canal and materially speed up the loading and return of the large, fast tankers carrying oil to the Pacific. The installation of this pipe line was accomplished under a fixed-fee contract, awarded specifically for this purpose, on August 4, As initially planned, the project called for the installation of one inch and one inch welded-steel pipe lines, each 33 miles long, connecting the Gatun and the Arraijan tank farms.

Construction was started in October. In addition to one Canal-crossing, 4 miles of the run was under the waters of Gatun Lake. The rugged terrain and jungle along the route presented many problems in ditching, grading, and placing of the pipe itself. Even Gatun Lake had to be cleared of submerged obstacles. In spite of an unduly severe rainy season, the two pipe lines were completed and used for the first time on April 18, By the end of the entire system was completed and in full operation.

In April , a year after the first test had been run, work was started to double the capacity of the pipe line. A second inch fuel line and a inch line to carry gasoline were laid directly over the original and inch pipes. As a part of the general expansion program undertaken in the Canal Zone, two housing developments, totaling units, were built to provide for the families of married enlisted personnel and civilian employees of the 15th Naval District.

These units, built under a contract awarded in December , were divided, being on the Atlantic and on the Pacific end of the Canal. The larger development, Coco Solito, was constructed on a acre, filled-in site, one mile south of the air station at Coco Solo. Laid out with six east-west streets and three north-south ones, Coco Solito contained 91 twelve-unit, one eight-unit, and one four-unit apartment buildings.

The structures were of similar type and design, three stories high, of concrete and frame, with galvanized-iron roofing. The housing area at the Pacific end of the Canal encircled San Juan Hill on three sides, spreading over approximately acres of rolling ground which required considerable clearing and leveling.

It included 66 four-unit apartments, 2 officers’ houses, 2 bachelor officers’ quarters, and 5 Btype barracks, together with several community buildings, storehouses, a public-works shop, administration, subsistence, and service buildings. At Lacona, apartments for civilian personnel were completed in December This group comprised 24 twelve-unit and one eight-unit apartment houses. A new inch water main replaced the former 8-inch one supplying Balboa, and a ,gallon water reservoir was built on San Juan Hill to serve naval activities.

To care for the large increases in personnel which accompanied the expansion of the naval establishment, a new bed naval hospital was built on a acre tract of high land, on the north side of the new Trans-Isthmian Highway, about 3 miles from the Coco Solo air station. This facility consisted of a four-story structure, with additional buildings for quarters, laundry, garage, and sewage plant, all of reinforced concrete.

It was commissioned in September , and later enlarged by the addition of two temporary wards of frame construction, to provide beds. A second hospital was built on a acre tract adjoining the operating base on the Pacific side.

Construction of this bed facility was begun in the late fall of It was commissioned August 15, , and put to immediate use, though only partially completed. All the buildings were of temporary frame construction, one-story high, and well ventilated. They included six standard H-type wards, connected by covered passageways, quarters, and administration building, and laboratories, messhalls, and garages. Location and general layout were chosen so as to be readily adaptable if permanent structures were eventually erected on the site.

The naval magazine area at Coco Solo, originally completed in , was more than doubled both in storage capacity and in area, during the war-construction period. Under the initial program, begun in November , new additions were confined within the original area of acres. After war was declared, further increase in storage facilities was ordered and the area of the reserve increased to acres, of which were devoted to the Coco Solo tank farm.

Both the earlier work and the later additions required a considerable amount of clearing, excavating, and road building. Altogether, 40 storage structures of various types, ranging from concrete arch-type underground magazines for high explosives to frame storehouses, were built. The capacity of the existing West Bank Ammunition Depot, commissioned in September , was increased fourfold during the period from to , a total of 47 ammunition magazines being built, of which 34 were concrete arch-type high-explosive magazines.

These were linked together by a system of access roads, and the newly developed area enclosed by 7 miles of wire fencing. In addition, sentry stations, telephone lines, quarters for assigned personnel, and a temporary mine-anchor storage building were included in the development. The two major radio stations, located at Gatun and Summit, were considerably enlarged, and a third, known as the Farfan Radio Station, was installed at Balboa.

At the Gatun station, three existing towers were removed and replaced by three foot steel towers; a new two-story reinforced-concrete, bombproof transmitter and command post was added. To the station at Summit, which had been completed in , were added housing, an extension to the transmitter building, a new bombproof transmitter and receiving building, and a foot and an foot tower. Erecting the foot tower presented an unusual construction problem.

Approximately , cubic yards of excavation were necessary to level the surrounding terrain before placing the ground grid-system, which comprised bare copper wires extending radially for a distance of feet.

The foot square tower rested on a single, huge insulator and was supported vertically by eight equally spaced guy cables, attached at a height of feet.

The installation included five steel towers, a two-story bombproof operations building, and housing facilities. The Panama Canal maintained its ship-repair facilities serving the Atlantic end of the canal at Cristobal. These, comprising the Mount Hope shops and a graving dock, feet by 80 feet, were supplemented by two marine railways of ton and ton capacities and a foot marginal wharf. As a part of the fuel-storage program, the dock was equipped with fuel, diesel-oil, and gasoline pipe lines to facilitate the transfer of liquid fuel to the Gatun tank farm.

Dredging to a depth of 35 feet provided an adequate turning basin in the vicinity of the marine railways and the marginal wharf. The old section base at Cristobal was supplemented by new buildings to house and feed men assigned to the inshore patrol. An area opposite Balboa, the only practical location for the expansion of waterfront facilities at the Pacific entrance, had been under study for several years as a possible site for a submarine base.

In the summer of , the development of a small operating base was begun at a point where a pier had been built four years previously, to afford access to the ammunition depot.

An extension was made to this pier and two new finger piers were added. The two new piers, each 40 by feet, were built of reinforced concrete. Concrete piles were cast at the concrete plant at Fort Randolph, on the Atlantic side, then producing piles for the Margarita breakwater, and shipped through the Canal. Pipe tunnels built into the piers provided space for fuel-oil, water, and power lines.

The original ammunition depot pier was lengthened feet and the waterfront area dredged to provide a foot depth alongside the old pier, and a foot depth at the new ones. A fourth pier, feet long, north of the ammunition pier, was planned and the necessary dredging completed, but the project was cancelled. Several hundred feet out from the shoreline a head quay, or transverse wharf, 50 by feet, was built to join the inboard ends of the three piers. A fill of dredged material was to be placed behind the quay, but after filling had progressed behind the first completed section, a serious slide damaged that portion of the quay.

The damaged part was not rebuilt, and no more fill was placed. An industrial area for the new base, adjacent to the piers, was provided with shops for repair and overhaul of torpedoes, batteries, communication equipment, and other items of comparable magnitude. In addition, a three-story general storehouse, by feet, was erected to house top-off stores for Pacific-bound convoys.

South of the industrial area, a net and boom depot was established, equipped with a steel-frame net and boom building and several temporary storehouses. In addition, the depot was provided with a paved area of 12, square feet for net weaving and 74, square feet for storage. The 15th Naval District headquarters area, covering 40 acres, was increased to 65, and a new, 3-story, reinforced-concrete office building, a bombproof command center, and additional housing for service personnel were built.

A four-story concrete store house, 80 by feet, adjacent to the Balboa piers, completed in November , formed the nucleus of the Balboa supply depot. After our entry into the war, when the Zone became the last stopping-off place for vessels en route to the Pacific, eight temporary frame structures, each 50 by feet, were erected on an acre plot, half a mile north of the main warehouse.

These structures were completed in March , together with a sorting and handling shed and a 75,square-foot lumber-storage yard. A much-needed refrigerator storehouse to replenish ships’ food-lockers was completed during May During World War I, when the construction of the Pacific terminal of the Canal was under discussion, it was decided to build two graving docks at Balboa; one to take any vessel that could pass through the canal locks and the other to care for smaller ships.

Construction of both was started, but only the larger, known as Drydock Number 1, was completed. When work on the smaller dock, Drydock Number 2, was stopped, early in , the head wall and south side wall had been completed and the floor of the dock excavated into rock to the required depth. Thereafter, Dock Number 2 was carried in the shore development plans as an essential project to be provided at Balboa.

Number 2 was approved as a project in January , and construction began immediately. It was redesigned to accommodate two destroyers or two submarines abreast, and a third dock for small vessels was built alongside, so located as to use the north wall of Dock Number 2 as one of its own.

A pumping plant and electrical substation, a wharf along the north wall of Dock Number 3, a pier between Docks 2 and 3, and a cellular sheet-pile extension of the north and south walls of Dock Number 2, to form an approach pier, aiding the lateral control of vessels during docking operations, were also built. Some new machinery was purchased and installed in the Panama Canal shops to improve the repair capacity.

By the end of the total repair facilities available in the Canal Zone were estimated as equal to those at Pearl Harbor on December 7, The eight bases, popularly known as „Destroyer Bases“ because of their acquisition from Britain in exchange for over-age destroyers, operated to advance our sea frontier several hundred miles into the Atlantic on a broad arc, with Argentia, Newfoundland, as the north anchor and Trinidad as the south anchor, with Bermuda between.

Individually and collectively they were of significant value in that they afforded strategically located sites upon which to base tactical and patrol aircraft for the control of the Caribbean.

Development and fortification of each base took into account the limitations imposed by location and character of terrain. For immediate strategic reasons, Trinidad, Bermuda, and Argentia were given top priority and eventually became important bases for the operation of ships as well as planes. Argentia is discussed in the chapter dealing with bases in the North Atlantic. A major air base, as visualized by the Greenslade Board, was to be equipped with complete facilities for operation, storage, and supply, engine overhaul, and complete periodic general overhaul of all types of planes.

A secondary air base was a smaller installation, having facilities primarily for the operation, routine upkeep, and emergency repair of aircraft. At the very beginning of their construction history these bases shared a common plan calling for the installation at each of emergency shore facilities to house a Marine detachment. This phase of their development was initiated by the Bureau of Yards and Docks on October 30, , by assigning to the fixed-fee contract then operating at San Juan, the task of purchasing the necessary materials and equipment in advance of operations on the site.

This beginning permitted the preliminary work attending a project of this magnitude to progress simultaneously with the negotiations attending the transfer of these Crown lands. The Greenslade Board submitted its recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy on October 27, , and tentative leases for the lands required were drawn, based on these findings; the necessary topographic and hydrographic surveys were begun. Remoteness of the sites, unknown bidding conditions, and the pressing necessity for speed contributed to the decision to undertake the construction at each location by negotiated cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts.

At first, there were some difficulties as the local governments did not have a clear picture of the agreement between the British and the United States governments concerning the use of the leased areas, and it was necessary for the Bureau to secure temporary leases in order to avoid delaying construction until such matters as customs, taxes, wharfage fees, and wage rates for local labor could be settled.

Lucia, on January 13; Great Exuma, March The Jamaican government authorized entry into Little. Goat Island on January Final lease agreements for all the bases were consummated March 27, The strategically important island of Trinidad, commanding a vulnerable approach to the Panama Canal and the South American trade routes, lies off the coast of Venezuela.

It is roughly 35 by 55 miles, with two long, narrow peninsulas extending westward toward the continent to form the Gulf of Paria, completely landlocked except for two easily guarded channels, each 7 miles wide. The site for the naval shore establishment, on the northwest tip of the island, was acquired under two separate lease agreements, the first of which, dated April 22, , involved acres, including five small islands in the Gulf of Paria, the property of the Crown.

The second acquisition, made during December , involved privately owned acres. The site consisted principally of steep hills and ridges, interspersed with flat valleys extending from four well-defined bays along the southern shore of the northwest peninsula. This location had the patent advantage of being remote from Port of Spain, the principal Trinidad city and port. From an engineering standpoint the flat areas along the shore, though limited, contained a minimum of swampy lowland, and the bay waters, with a minimum of dredging, were deep enough for accessibility by ships.

The four bays – Carenage, Chaguaramus, Teteron, and Scotland – and two valleys – Chaguaramus and Tucker – each became the locale of a separate naval activity.

Of the 11, acres acquired, only The original plans for Trinidad called for the immediate construction of a naval air station with facilities to support the operation of one patrol squadron of seaplanes and the development of a protected fleet anchorage in the Gulf of Paria.

The ultimate goal was the development of a subsidiary operating base and a major air station with facilities for two patrol squadrons and the temporary operation of two carrier groups.

On January 24, , a fixed-fee contract was awarded covering the construction of the air station and the first installment of dredging. Construction operations, which began during March, were confined to the Carenage Bay area. Included in the initial phase of the program were a byfoot tender pier, seaplane facilities, including a concrete-paved beach and a macadam parking area, two concrete seaplane ramps, a steel hangar and control tower, gasoline storage, and associated industrial, storage, administration, and personnel buildings.

These major features of the station were of a permanent character, built of steel and concrete. During the early months of the construction period the contractor’s efforts were devoted to the many preliminaries attending a project of this magnitude. It was necessary to relocate a settlement of several hundred persons, build access roads, develop a quarry, and perform extensive clearing operations. One of the earliest projects undertaken was, of necessity, an aggressive campaign to combat malaria.

Swampy bogs along the shore and the wet lowlands of Tucker Valley were drained, sprayed with oil, and later filled with dredged material. A force of men devoted full time to the malaria program during the life of the contract. Almost from its inception, the Trinidad contract, by a steady increase of added projects to its scope, reflected the trend of world events. The first increase, made in June , was directed toward.

A net depot, additional dredging, a fueling pier, and a fuel and diesel-oil storage depot were added to the contract.

The fuel storage comprised five 27,barrel steel tanks and two 27,barrel pre-stressed-concrete tanks. The fueling pier was a byfoot structure with a composite deck of concrete and laminated wood. Dredging operations, begun in August , were continued over a two-year period, during which time a total of 13,, yards of material was moved to provide navigable channels to the various piers, water approaches to the seaplane base, a fleet anchorage in Carenage Bay, and the fill necessary to reclaim waterfront area.

Of this total, more than 2,, yards were placed in swamps to eliminate mosquito-breeding areas. Shortly after the declaration of war, the long-range plans made for Trinidad were translated into a vigorous construction program through a series of major additions made to the contract during The first of these, a section base at Teteron Bay, was incorporated with the air station on February At the same time, contracts were let for five large fleet warehouses and a radio station, a high-power link in the major radio network of the Western Hemisphere.

The station was located in Chaguaramus Valley and was of unusual design in that its main antennae were strung across the valley, supported by the mountain ridges on either side.

In March construction of a bed hospital in upper Tucker Valley was begun. May brought new additions to the air station, including a third seaplane ramp, additional parking area, and more personnel buildings, increasing the station’s handling capacity to five squadrons of patrol planes. At the same time, two timber floating drydocks,. These were built on the site, in two dredged basins especially equipped for the operation.

In June, work was started on two ,gallon concrete gasoline tanks, built underground and connected to the water displacement system installed to handle aviation gasoline at the air station. The total capacity of liquid-fuel storage constructed was in excess of 7,, gallons. Our entry into the war made our shipping a target for enemy submarines, and Germany was quick to take advantage of this opportunity by incursions into our coastal waters in January A squadron of ten Army bombers, equipped with radar detection devices, began operating from Langley Field, Va.

By this time the squadron had been augmented by several hundred bombers, both Navy and Army, under the operational control of the Navy. The coastal convoy system was established in May and expanded, during the summer months, to the Gulf and the Caribbean.

Notwithstanding these measures, there were five ships sunk between April and September, with cargo intended for Trinidad, which not only contributed to the cost but added considerable time loss.

One of these ships carried the complete materials for a second seaplane hangar intended for the air station; the hangar was never built.

With each succeeding month during the summer of new projects were added. In August, a supply depot, comprising 20 large wooden warehouses with concrete floors, was begun on reclaimed swamp land in Chaguaramus Valley. During September, work was started on the assembly of nine steel barges and the installation of a degaussing range on Pelican Island.

From the struggle to combat the German submarine menace and the strategic necessity for adequate strength to protect our southern flank in the Atlantic, came the decision to equip Trinidad with facilities for ship repair.

Begun as an air station and commissioned as such on October 1, , Trinidad, a year later, became a complete naval operating base, equipped with a section base, net, supply, and fuel depots, a hospital, a degaussing range, a radio station, and ship-repair facilities. The work at the repair base, on Chaguaramus Bay, included extensive dredging and a waterfront development comprising four finger piers and a foot quay wall.

Two of these piers, one feet and the other feet long, were built on timber piles. The other two, feet long, were supported by concrete piles. In addition, the base was completely equipped with shops, an administration building, a power plant built of reinforced concrete and equipped with six kw diesel generators, five 2-story barracks to house men, officers’ quarters, and a laundry.

These additions beyond the original plan brought about major changes in site planning, making it necessary to develop overall plans for highways, electric-power distribution, communications, and water and sewerage systems.

A few roads of good surface quality existed on the reservation, but they had eventually to be replaced as a result of heavy usage or relocated as the station expanded.

Of the 57 miles of roads built within the reservation, 30 miles were hard surfaced, 11 miles were given a heavy penetration, and the remainder were coral-surfaced or dirt. Fortunately, road-building materials were readily at hand – native coral sand dredged from Carenage Bay and emulsified asphalt produced locally, combining to yield a durable wearing surface.

Tucker and Chaguaramus valleys, the two principal watersheds, contain water-bearing sand and gravel deposits which were developed as a source of water supply by means of 25 wells, driven at scattered locations.

The wells were connected to a system of 20 reservoirs, so located as to maintain gravity pressure in the distribution mains. The water was chlorinated at each well and required no filtering.

All supervising personnel, and the majority of the skilled trades labor used in construction in Trinidad were hired in the States and brought to the station under contract.

Upon these men fell the task of leading and teaching the local labor employed. Exclusive of a few outstanding individuals, the majority of the local workmen had. There was a definite caste distinction, not only among the different races but among the different employment classifications. They were temperamental among their own groups, which often resulted in serious fights, particularly between the men of Trinidad proper and those of the smaller islands.

They had to be taught, checked, and coached, from the beginning of the operation to the end, which threw an enormous burden on the supervisors, intensified by the large labor turnover and the wide diversification of the project as a whole.

On December 30, , when the 30th Construction Battalion arrived at Trinidad, the contractor was maintaining all completed and partially completed facilities in addition to performing his current construction program. The Seabees immediately took over the maintenance and operation of all completed or usably completed facilities, permitting the contractor to concentrate his personnel on construction work. In January , the Public Works Department was organized, officers and men of the 30th Battalion being assigned to the various maintenance and operating divisions.

Those Seabees having specialized training were shifted into power house, refrigeration, transportation, and other activities. The remainder, other than administrative personnel, were used on minor construction jobs. In April, the Bureau of Yards and Docks requested termination of the contract by June 30, , and at the same time directed the station Public Works Department to take over new construction activities in addition to base maintenance. With more than Seabees assigned to maintenance and civilian employees to be replaced, the 30th Battalion was hard pressed to satisfy all demands for personnel.

Accordingly, the 83rd Battalion was assigned to Trinidad, the first echelon arriving the latter part of May and the remainder during June. When the contractor terminated his activities on June 30, these two battalions carried. Upon the termination of the contract, the Navy purchased a hydraulic dredge, and dredging operations were continued under a new contract, awarded primarily for the purpose of indoctrinating Seabees in the operation of this type of dredge.

After six months training the Seabee crew assumed complete supervision of this piece of equipment, and the contract was terminated in January Dredging operations were completed in the Trinidad area in June , at which time the dredge was transferred to the Pacific area for further operations.

The original lease agreement did not include the upper reaches of Tucker Valley and the Maqueripe Bay area fronting the Caribbean on the north side of the peninsula. After our entry into the war, control of this area became essential to the military security of the base.

In the supplemental lease consummated in December , whereby these areas were included in the year lease, it was agreed that the United States would build and turn over to the local government a roadway along the northern shore of the peninsula to permit the general public to have access to the beach at Maracas Bay in lieu of facilities formerly available at Maqueripe.

Requiring the removal of. While the Navy was engaged in developing the operating base on the Gulf of Paria, the Army was engaged in building two major airfields, known as Waller Field and Carlsen Field, which were also used by the Navy as bases for carrier planes and transport service.

When the Navy began lighter-than-air operations in the Caribbean in the fall of , the 80th Seabees were brought in to build a station at Carlsen Field. To supplement the eight Army-owned buildings taken over by the Navy, the 80th Battalion built a large, steel blimp hangar, a mooring circle, paved runways, a helium-purification plant, and other operational appurtenances. Upon the arrival of the 80th Battalion, the 11th Construction Regiment was formed to furnish the administrative framework within which the three battalions, augmented by 10, natives, functioned during the construction peak in the fall of The strength of the regiment was further augmented on December 16th by the arrival of CBMU’s and From the date of their arrival, men of both units were assigned the maintenance and operational duties performed by the 30th Battalion, thus permitting the release and reassignment.

By May , the construction program at Trinidad was substantially accomplished, and the 80th Battalion, having completed the work at Carlsen Field, left on May 4, followed by the 83rd Battalion during the succeeding month. Immediately thereafter the 11th Regiment was disbanded, leaving the two maintenance units, raised to a strength of men and 13 officers, to carry on public-works activities.

Bermuda, a group of small islands, chiefly coral and limestone, about miles off Cape Hatteras, occupies a strategically important position, commanding sea and air approaches to the Middle Atlantic coastline.

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