Should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol. Quality of life as patient-reported outcomes: principles of assessment

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Measuring Function and Wellbeing. Ware JE. Standards for validating health measures. Definition and content. J Chron Dis. Bowling A. Measuring health: a review of guality of life measurement scales.

Feeney DH. Health utilities index. In: Spilker, B. Quality of Life and Pharmaeconomics in Clinical Trials. Matza LS. Value Health. Lebensqualitatsforschung aus medizinpsychologischer und -soziologischer Perspektive. Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe. Generic and disease-specific measures in assessing health status and quality of life.

Med Care. Hays RD. Psychometric considerations in evaluating health-related quality of life measures. Qual Life Res. Nguyen TH. An introduction to item response theory for patient-reported outcome measurement.

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In press. Aaronson NK. Quality of life assessment in clinical trials: Methodologic issues. Control Clin Trials. Fairclough DL. Design and analysis of quality of life studies in clinical trials.

Cella DF. In: Spliker B, ed. Chassany O. Patientreported outcomes: The example of health-related quality of life—a European guidance document for the improved integration of health-related quality of life assessment in the drug regulatory process. Drug Inf J. Mokkink, Lidwine MB. The SF Health Survey. Hunt SM. The Nottingham Health Profile: subjective health status and medical consultations. J Nat Cancer Inst. Generic quality of life assessment in psychiatry: Potentials and limitations. Eur Psychiatry.

Naber D. Psychopharmaka und lebensqualitat. Grundlagen der Neuro-Psychopharmakologie – Fin Therapiehandbuch. Vienna, Austria: Springer; — Lehman AF. A quality of life interview for the chronically mentally ill.

Eval Program Plann. Heinrichs DW. The quality of life scale: an instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophr Bull. Assessing the quality of life in mental illness. Contemporary Psychiatry Volume 1. Part 2: General Psychiatry. Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany: Springer; — Katschnig H. Quality of Life in Mental Disorders. Chichester, England: Wiley. Awad AG. Measuring quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: an update.

Franz M. Discriminant and convergent validity of a subjective quality-of-life instrument aimed at high content validity for schizophrenic persons. Schiz Res. Ishak WW. Harv Rev Psychiatry. The QLDS: a scale for the measurement of quality of life in depression. Health Policy. Olatunji BO. Quality of life in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. Rapaport MH. Quality-of-life impairment in depressive and anxiety disorders.

Am J Psychiatry. Subramaniam M. Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: impact of the disorder and of treatment. CNS Drugs. Macy AS. CNS Spectr. Zubaran C. Quality of life and substance use: concepts and recent tendencies. Curr Opin Psychiatry. Ugochukwu C. Herrman H. Quality of life and neurotic disorders in general healthcare. De Fruyt J. Quality of life measurement in antidepressant trials. Is there an added value? Psychother Psychosom. Dey M.

Health-related quality of life among children with mental disorders: a systematic review. Prigent A. Quality of life instruments used in mental health research: properties and utilization.

Psychiatry Res. Hoffman DL. Human and economic burden of generalized anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety. Spitzer RL. Jones PB. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Frischknecht U. Improved drinking behaviour improves quality of life: a follow-up in alcohol-dependent subjects 7 years after treatment. Alcohol Alcohol. Ritsner MS. Ten-year quality of life outcomes of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Chaves KM.

Psychiatr Q. Meltzer HY. Effects of six months of clozapine treatment on the quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry. Acta Psychiatr Scand.

Zilcha-Mano S. Changes in well-being and quality of life in a randomized trial comparing dynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder.

J Affect Disord. Michalak EE. Burden of bipolar depression: impact of disorder and medications on quality of life. Atkinson M.

Characterizing quality of life among patients with chronic mental illness: a critical examination of the self-report methodology. Lambert M. Current issues in schizophrenia: overview of patient acceptability, functioning capacity and quality of life. Wilkinson G. Br J Psychiatry. Pickard AS. Proxy evaluation of health-related quality of life: a conceptual framework for understanding multiple proxy perspectives.

Medical Care. Renwick L. J Psychiatr Res. IsHak WW. Ayuso-Mateos JL. Development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core sets for bipolar disorders: results of an international consensus process.

Disabil Rehabil. Johnston BC. Health Qual Life Outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes to support medical product labeling claims: FDA perspective. Ahmed S. The use of patient-reported outcomes PRO within comparative effectiveness research: implications for clinical practice and health care policy.

Snyder CF. Use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice. Basch E. New frontiers in patient-reported outcomes: adverse event reporting, comparative effectiveness, and quality assessment. Annu Rev Med. Smith PC. On the uses of routine patient-reported health outcome data. Health Econ. Karow A. The three major steps under the ROSES principles for a systematic review are: 1 searching; 2 screening; and 3 appraisal and synthesis Haddaway et al. These steps are described below in the context of this current review see also Fig.

Flowchart of the review. WoS is a large database of articles that include those in the social and environmental sciences Landauer et al. In a recent scholarly work, it was demonstrated that WoS alone could be used as a source for a major systematic review Runting et al.

In this review, we were especially interested in studies focusing on QOL assessment, evaluation, or measurement in the social-ecological context. Hence, we used terms that focus on the assessment, evaluation, and measurement of QOL see Fig. We performed our search on January 4, , and included records published from to This period was chosen intentionally to capture recent trends in QOL research. Our search tracked articles Fig. S1 ; Table S1. We further refined the search by focusing only on research areas that were deemed more relevant under the social-ecological system paradigm Redman et al.

By narrowing the research areas, the searched articles decreased to articles Fig. Having screened these articles based on title and abstract, 81 articles were identified and subjected to the next level of screening which focused on methods.

The articles that were excluded were those that neither explicitly mentioned the method or approach used in QOL assessment, nor proceeded with QOL assessment, evaluation and measurement, as well as those that did not use any method other than medicine and health-related questionnaire survey instruments. On this basis, 19 articles were retained and subjected to a full-text review. In addition, nine pre-screened existing and emerging QOL-related indexes were included in the review Fig. It was important to include these indexes because they are all related to QOL assessment to some extent, and thus provide complementary perspectives through their conceptualization and methodological construct of QOL-related indexes.

In order to facilitate our analysis of the conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies and assessments on QOL, as well as of some existing and emerging QOL-related indexes, we developed a questionnaire checklist Table 2 for the systematic retrieval of relevant information from all of the references Table S2. Prior to our analysis of the retrieved information, we examined the QOL publication trends and the network of keywords used in the searched articles Fig.

Questionnaire checklist used to retrieve relevant information from the references reviewed. We used the two sets of searched articles i. The same software has been used in other previous bibliometric analyses e. Based on our pre-defined set of questions Table 2 , we summarized the following information in a table: year of publication or first release; purpose and scope; theoretical or conceptual foundation; dimensions and indicators; weighting and aggregation methods; value range and unit of final index; unit of analysis; and type of data used.

In our synthesis, we evaluated the references in relation to the triple bottom line. The triple bottom line has been, and continues to be, an important framework for sustainability assessment. We classified the references based on the presence or absence of indicators i. To this end, the reference that included at least one indicator that falls within the scope of the dimension under consideration was marked by placing its number inside a circle. Otherwise, the reference was marked with a circle only, without its number.

The references were also evaluated for whether subjective well-being satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment, welfare, etc. Here, an objective assessment is defined as a type of evaluation or measurement that uses indicators that are based on statistics e. As part of our synthesis, we also evaluated and classified the references based on the four qualities of life plotted in four quadrants Veenhoven , The four quadrants Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 are the results of the intersections of two dichotomies, namely the outer and inner qualities of life, and the life chances and life results: Q1 outer quality-life chances livability of the environment ; Q2 inner qualities-life chances life-ability of a person ; Q3 outer qualities-life results utility of life ; and Q4 inner qualities-life results enjoyment of life.

Life chances refer to opportunities for a good life, while life results refer to outcomes. Livability of environment refers to the habitability of the environment, while the life-ability of a person refers to the capacity of individuals to cope with pressures or perturbations.

Based on their respective indicators i. After the results of the bibliometric analysis and full-text review were summarized, we determined whether the issues of climate change and variability were considered in the references reviewed. This means that the average number of articles published per year was higher during the — period than during the — period From to , the average annual number of articles published was Based on the articles, i.

The results also revealed some fluctuations in the annual publication of QOL research articles during the analysis period. Nevertheless, the results showed an overall significant increase in article publication of QOL assessments over the past 18 years for both sets of articles Fig. Temporal trends in article publications regarding QOL — Table S1 lists all the research areas and those selected. Table S1 provides the complete list of research areas that the searched QOL articles fell into as per the WoS classification.

With a few exceptions, most of the research areas are directly related to the medicine and health-related fields. In both figures, the size of the circles indicates occurrences, while the thickness of the lines indicates link strength between keywords.

The color and position of the circles indicate the clustering pattern. For the articles Fig. Fractional counting was used, which means that the weight of a link was fractionalized.

For example, if a keyword co-occurs with five other keywords, each of the five keywords has a weight of 0. For these articles, a threshold of 2 was applied i. The result for the articles is presented in Fig. The articles reviewed were structured on more specific concepts or variants of QOL, including quality of life as a function of objective socioeconomic and environmental variables, urban quality of life, transport quality of life, tourism-related community quality of life, and sustainable tourism development Table S2.

On the other hand, the QOL-related indexes reviewed were designed based on general concepts, including human development, sustainability or sustainable development, better life, social progress, and social-ecological status. A wide range of QOL dimensions was identified from the references reviewed, and each of these dimensions included at least one indicator Table S2. All of the references considered indicators that were related to the social dimension.

Classification of the references reviewed 19 articles [1—19] and 9 indexes [20—28] based on their respective indicators plotted according to the triple bottom line fulfillers of human needs. The figure also shows the articles and indexes that explicitly considered subjective well-being satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment, welfare, etc.

Figure 5 presents the categorization of the references reviewed in terms of their respective indicators in relation to the four qualities of life. Q1 livability of the environment included any indicator that is related to the quality of the social and physical environment, such as housing conditions, as well as the quantity and quality of urban facilities, water, air, and green spaces.

Q2 life-ability of a person was associated with human and personal attributes, such as those related to health and education. Q4 enjoyment of life comprised indicators or dimensions such as subjective well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, and life expectancy.

In Q1, all but one of the references had at least one indicator. Classification of the references reviewed 19 articles [1—19] and 9 indexes [20—28] , plotted across the four quadrants of QOL based on their respective indicators. The numbers correspond to the numbers in Fig. The results revealed that QOL assessments varied greatly in terms of context or unit of analysis. Of the nine indexes reviewed, eight were designed for country-level assessments, of which some could also be applied to sub-national level assessments e.

Eight of the nine indexes were designed for general assessment without targeting any particular sector, like urban areas or cities. Summary table highlighting some of the salient features of the references reviewed articles [1—19] and indexes [20—28].

The table also indicates whether a particular reference used unequal weights UW during aggregation dimension level and whether it derived an overall composite index OCI. The intended unit of analysis was not explicitly mentioned. The testing of its prototype was performed in two universities. In this table, Reference Nos.

Except for Reference Nos. More details can be found in Table S2. The methodological framework employed by the references reviewed generally follows the principles of hierarchical aggregation Fig. This means that indicators are aggregated first, followed by the aggregation of the dimensions to produce a composite index. A generalized and simplified flowchart for deriving an overall composite index based on hierarchical aggregation. The dotted line between the dimension boxes and the overall composite index box indicates that not all of the references reviewed derived an overall composite index.

Here, dimensions also refer to domains, components or their equivalent. In some cases, sub-indicators, called variables in the figure, were also used e. The results revealed that climate-related keywords such as climate change, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, sensitivity, exposure, hazard, and risk were not [yet] popular among QOL scholars Figs.

Nevertheless, we recognize that some of the references reviewed included some essential climate variables like temperature and rainfall Royuela et al.

The bibliometric analysis revealed an overall significant increase in article publications concerning QOL assessment over the past 18 years, indicating that this field of study is receiving attention from the research and academic communities. In general, bibliometric analysis supports the evaluation of research trends in a particular field of study Englund et al.

Besides providing guidance, it can encourage and challenge researchers to conduct further studies. In addition to the temporal data from article publications, the resulting research topics or keywords from this review including their occurrences and networks can be used to identify research trends and potential gaps in QOL research.

We acknowledge that our approach for refining the research areas to be included in the second stage of the bibliometric analysis of QOL assessments that are more general in context was rather subjective. Nonetheless, the approach proved to be useful as it resulted in a more diverse set of keywords, favorable to the purpose of this review.

For instance, in our bibliometric analysis, the inclusion of keywords that go beyond the realms of medicine and health-related fields e. However, we observed that the aforementioned keywords still had low occurrences and weak connections with QOL Fig.

In fact, four of the references reviewed did not include any indicator of environment in their respective assessments or index development UNDP , , ; Rinner ; Narayana Fig. The results additionally revealed that some of the key environment-related concepts today were not popular among QOL authors in their choice of keywords, such as sustainable development or sustainability , natural capital, and ecosystem services Figs.

In fact, the relationship between QOL and sustainable development has continued to constitute an important topic among scholars e. We noted that within the references reviewed, some authors either mentioned or related their QOL assessments to the concept of sustainable development Doi et al.

However, given that the sustainable development or sustainability concept was not captured in the analysis Fig. This is especially pertinent because sustainability is not a well-defined concept Beckerman ; Wu It is possible that one way of illustrating the connection between QOL and the concept of sustainable development is through the use of bridging concepts, such as the natural capital and ecosystem services concepts.

Natural capital includes environments that generate and provide valuable ecosystem services to people Costanza and Daly ; MEA The fresh air we breathe, the clean water we drink, the wood and medicinal plants we harvest, the coastal protective role that mangroves play, and the shade that trees provide to name a few are all considered ecosystem services. However, in order to ensure the sustainability of these services, the concept of sustainable development must be observed and put into practice.

The quantity and quality of these services today and in the future are contingent on human actions, i. The United Nations recognizes that sustainable development is crucial to the QOL UN and hence, the sustainability concept has been incorporated in most of the indexes reviewed Fig. Among the studies articles reviewed, differences in the interpretation and operationalization of the QOL concept were observed.

These studies have addressed and used the QOL concept in the context of their respective assessments. For instance, in their attempt to develop an integrated evaluation method for accessibility, quality of life, and social interaction, Doi et al.

Rao et al. Conversely, the indexes reviewed are built on more general concepts and are designed for much broader types of QOL-related assessments.

Among these conceptual foundations are sustainable development or sustainability , human development, social progress, better life, global cities, resilience, and the social-ecological system paradigm.

In general, these varied conceptual foundations are indicative of the multidimensionality and flexibility, but also the amorphous nature, of the QOL concept. In line with the references reviewed, we contend that there is a constant need to be explicit and specific, theoretically and conceptually, when attempting to perform a QOL assessment.

Clarification at the outset of an assessment can help elucidate the overall context, and facilitate the identification and selection of the relevant dimensions and indicators to be included.

Thus, given that the references reviewed have their own conceptualization of QOL or QOL-related indexes according to their respective purposes, their respective sets of dimensions and indicators also varied Table S2. Nevertheless, all of the indicators used can be related to the triple bottom line of sustainability Fig.

While we found that HDI and IHDI did not include indicators related to the environment UNDP , two of the articles reviewed also did not include any indicator that could generally be classified under the environmental dimension Rinner ; Narayana Fig.

In terms of the social dimension, all the references considered at least one indicator, but in terms of the economic dimension, three of the articles Narayana ; Brambilla et al. SPI is designed to measure social progress directly based on social and environmental outcomes, independent of economic development Porter et al.

On the other hand, HPI is designed to be a measure of sustainable well-being based on how efficiently residents in different countries use natural resources to achieve long lives and high levels of well-being Marks ; NEF The results also revealed that many of the references considered subjective well-being in their respective assessments Fig. Overall, while the results i. The extensive list of research areas identified in this review Table S1 is another indication of the wide-ranging scope of the QOL concept.

QOL assessments can also be performed across multiple spatial scales or administrative levels, although we recognize that most of the indexes reviewed are designed for country-level assessments Table 3. The four quadrants in Fig. This indicates that the indexes reviewed are, to some extent, relatively more holistic in their respective approaches to QOL-related assessments, i. Data availability is also critical to the testing and further development of various QOL-related indexes, e.

In generating an overall composite index, weighting and aggregation methods also varied across studies and indexes Table S2. While this indicates that a common approach to this purpose is unavailable, it is also indicative of the richness of the potential approaches that can be applied, explored, and further developed.

In fact, it has been noted that the strengths and weaknesses of composite indicators largely depend on the stages of index development, including the weighting and aggregation methods used OECD Some scholars prefer to use equal weights based on the literature Royuela et al. There are two sides to the argument regarding aggregation. On the one hand, composite indicators have the ability to reveal the results of an integrated analytical framework, capture the bigger picture, and provide summary statistics that can communicate system status and trends to a wide range of audiences Baptista ; Estoque and Murayama Therefore, it is necessary for one to pay attention to these issues when using a composite index.

Estoque and Murayama , p. However, the results of this review provide very little evidence regarding the relationship between QOL and issues of climate change and variability as far as the references reviewed are concerned Figs. Hence, overall, we believe that there remains a need to expand the scope of QOL research to include climate-related issues more explicitly.

We recognize that this attempt to explicitly connect QOL with climate-related issues is not new. For instance, in the mids, Hoch and Drake examined the relationship between wage rates and climatic variables precipitation, temperature, and wind velocity hypothesizing that higher wages compensated for lower quality of life.

In their study, they found evidence in support of this hypothesis, the applications of which included estimating changes in real income given specified climate changes. In particular, he emphasized impending world food shortages due to population growth, the demands of the affluent on available food supplies, and climate variability. In a more recent case study, also in the context of QOL, Albouy et al. They found that Americans would pay more on the margin to avoid excess heat than cold.

In their review, Adger et al. They postulated that while place attachment contributes to QOL, this cultural value might be lost if people were forced to relocate as part of the strategy to adapt to climate change. Moreover, in a recent review of the behavioral impacts of global climate change, Evans , p.

In summary, these publications have considered wage rates Hoch and Drake , food Roberts , place attachment Adger et al. However, overall, QOL assessments in the context of climate-related issues remain limited. Thus, drawing on the above insights regarding i the impacts of climate change and variability, ii QOL-Climate connection, and iii the results of this review on general QOL assessment, we present a general framework that could potentially link QOL and issues of climate change and variability.

On the right-hand side of Fig. While the integrative definition of QOL suggests that it is the extent to which objective human needs are fulfilled in relation to personal or group perceptions of subjective well-being that defines QOL Costanza et al. However, it should be noted that although this is a generalized structure Fig. As discussed above, some of the references also did not include subjective well-being in their respective assessments Fig. Also included are references reviewed for some examples of indicators, and the syntheses in this review for the overall structure of the diagram.

On the left-hand side of the diagram Fig. Here, climate-related impacts across ecosystems and sectors of society are clarified through a climate impact chain analysis in short: impact chain. For instance, a climate stimulus such as sea level rise can result in land loss, which then can trigger havoc to agricultural production and rural and urban areas, as well as necessitate migration www.

This analysis is important because it can help reveal the impacts of climate change and variability on the five capitals human, social, natural, financial, and manufactured; www.

In the center of the diagram are indicators Fig. The hypothesis is that the resulting QOL, through these indicators, depends on the status of the five capitals, which is also contingent on the extent of climate-related impacts at a given point in time.

A feedback loop is drawn from the QOL and its dimensions to the social-ecological system components, indicating that the resulting level of QOL can be used as a driving force for policy intervention and adaptive planning Fig. Such planning and policy interventions should be able to limit the exposure of the social-ecological system components and their sub-components to climate hazards and reduce their vulnerability to climate change and variability.

The latter might be achieved by improving their adaptive capacities and reducing their sensitivities or susceptibilities to harm IPCC a , b. In the context of adaptive planning and policy intervention, the hierarchical structure of a QOL assessment Figs. We also recognize that all of these insights may not be easy to put into actual practice because every ecosystem and every sector of society may need its own set of interventions.

Such interventions are among the hot issues today in the context of climate change adaptation, not only among scholars but also among planners and policy-makers. In a broader context, nature-based solutions or NbS is currently being considered as a potential approach to addressing global societal challenges, including those related to water security, food security, human health, disaster risk reduction, and climate change and variability Cohen-Shacham et al.

Among the ecosystem-based approaches within the NbS family are ecosystem restoration approaches e. We recognize that the findings presented above are limited by the methods applied, and they should be interpreted with those caveats in mind. This is especially true of the search terms used, which focused on quality of life assessment, evaluation, or measurement, without the inclusion of other QOL-related terms like happiness, subjective well-being, and life satisfaction, or climate-related terms such as climate change, climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation.

Nevertheless, we believe that the search terms used have provided equal opportunity for all research articles in the database to be selected, regardless of their focus happiness, climate impacts, etc. The selection of the scientific database s to be used is a very important consideration at the initial stage of any systematic review that adopts the ROSES principles and protocols.

Our case is no different. Had we included additional scientific databases, more research articles might have been captured. That being said, we support any future attempt to replicate this review involving a greater number of scientific databases.

Our selection of the nine QOL-related indexes was also rather subjective. Our intention was to include some relatively old indexes that are still in use e. Based on the principles of ROSES, we have presented a systematic review aimed at gaining insights regarding the conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies and assessments of QOL and of selected existing and emerging QOL-related indexes.

The knowledge gained was used to develop a framework that might link QOL with climate-related issues. Our review also revealed that QOL assessments remain poorly connected with climate-related issues. We consider this as an important gap in QOL research, which needs to be filled by expanding the scope of such research. Just like many key concepts such as sustainability, freedom, justice, and democracy Daly ; Wu that have emerged in this contemporary geological epoch, the Anthropocene the age of man Crutzen , QOL represents a complex and dialectically vague concept Massam ; Moons et al.

However, although all of these concepts possess elements of ambiguity, they convey fundamental principles that guide our actions and shape our visions for the future see also Wu Consequently, we argue that, like the aforementioned concepts, QOL is considered a term of great importance to humankind.

We are today faced with various pressing issues, including the social-ecological impacts of climate change and variability.

The conclusions and recommendations presented in this article are of the authors and do not, in any way, represent the views of the funder. His research interests include quality of life indicators, sustainability indicators, applied mathematical optimization, and regional and urban environment design theory. His research interests include quality of life assessment, ecosystem services assessment, climate change vulnerability, impact and adaptation assessment, environmental ethics, and information science.

His research interests include integrated modeling, regional sciences, demography, and climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios. His research interests include rural planning, social capital, sustainability, rural resource management, and community environmental management. His research interests include the analysis of environmental issues related to climate change, and the development of an integrated assessment model to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures, as well as policy options for stabilizing global climate.

Her research interests include international and institutional negotiations concerning climate change based on theories and methodologies of international relations, and policies towards a sustainable society, including its assessment. Ronald C. Estoque, Email: pj. Takuya Togawa, Email: pj. Makoto Ooba, Email: pj. Kei Gomi, Email: pj. Shogo Nakamura, Email: pj.

Yasuaki Hijioka, Email: pj. Yasuko Kameyama, Email: pj. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Abstract Quality of life QOL , although a complex and amorphous concept, is a term that warrants attention, especially in discussions on issues that touch on the impacts of climate change and variability. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article Introduction Quality of life QOL has been, and continues to be, an important research topic across various disciplines including medicine, health, psychology, economics, sociology, and environmental science.

Table 1 Various definitions and descriptions of QOL. Reference Definition and description Liu , p. The optimal level of quality of life is produced only by combining both the physical and psychological inputs Unlike moods, which are heavily affected by immediately prior circumstances, happiness as a person’s appraisal of his ‘overall’ quality of existence takes in broader considerations Considering all these important accounts of happiness, we propose that happiness consists of the possession of resources; the satisfaction of needs, wants and desires; participation in self-actualizing activities; and comparisons with others and past experience.

Indices of health, welfare, freedom of choice, and more broadly, basic liberties, are instances of the first; those indices which reflect the availability of food, clothing, shelter, potable water, legal aid, education facilities, health care, resources devoted to national security, and income in general, are examples of the latter. For the most part, quality of life denotes bunches of qualities of life, bunches that can be ordered on the basis of two distinctions.

The first distinction is between opportunities for a good life and the outcomes of life A second difference is between external and inner qualities. Human needs are basic needs for subsistence, reproduction, security, affection, etc.

It tries to assess the level of general welfare of the communities. Open in a separate window. Materials and methods The three major steps under the ROSES principles for a systematic review are: 1 searching; 2 screening; and 3 appraisal and synthesis Haddaway et al.

Screening Our search tracked articles Fig. Appraisal and synthesis In order to facilitate our analysis of the conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies and assessments on QOL, as well as of some existing and emerging QOL-related indexes, we developed a questionnaire checklist Table 2 for the systematic retrieval of relevant information from all of the references Table S2.

Table 2 Questionnaire checklist used to retrieve relevant information from the references reviewed. Item Detail Bibliographic information Year of publication, or Year of first release in the case of some indexes Background and overview Purpose and scope Theoretical or conceptual basis Method QOL dimensions including domains, components, or their equivalent and indicators considered Whether subjective well-being is considered Weighting and aggregation methods used Types of data used i.

Publication trend and keywords network analysis We used the two sets of searched articles i. Synthesis of the conceptualization and methodological construct for QOL assessment Based on our pre-defined set of questions Table 2 , we summarized the following information in a table: year of publication or first release; purpose and scope; theoretical or conceptual foundation; dimensions and indicators; weighting and aggregation methods; value range and unit of final index; unit of analysis; and type of data used.

Synthesis of the linkage between QOL and climate change and variability issues After the results of the bibliometric analysis and full-text review were summarized, we determined whether the issues of climate change and variability were considered in the references reviewed. Conceptualization of QOL The articles reviewed were structured on more specific concepts or variants of QOL, including quality of life as a function of objective socioeconomic and environmental variables, urban quality of life, transport quality of life, tourism-related community quality of life, and sustainable tourism development Table S2.

Methodological construct for QOL assessment Unit of analysis The results revealed that QOL assessments varied greatly in terms of context or unit of analysis. Table 3 Summary table highlighting some of the salient features of the references reviewed articles [1—19] and indexes [20—28]. Methodological framework The methodological framework employed by the references reviewed generally follows the principles of hierarchical aggregation Fig. QOL and climate change and variability issues: their connections The results revealed that climate-related keywords such as climate change, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, sensitivity, exposure, hazard, and risk were not [yet] popular among QOL scholars Figs.

Discussion Research trend and potential gaps in QOL research The bibliometric analysis revealed an overall significant increase in article publications concerning QOL assessment over the past 18 years, indicating that this field of study is receiving attention from the research and academic communities.

 
 

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Should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol

 

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The site is secure. Quality of life QOLalthough a complex and amorphous concept, is a term that warrants attention, especially in discussions on issues that touch on the impacts of climate change and variability. Based on the principles of RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Synthesis, we present a systematic review aimed at gaining insights into the conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies regarding QOL and QOL-related indexes. However, we also find that QOL assessments remain poorly connected with climate-related issues, an important research gap.

The online version of this article Quality of life QOL has been, and continues to be, an important research topic across various disciplines including medicine, health, psychology, economics, sociology, and environmental science. Accordingly, the literature regarding QOL is rich and continuously growing.

However, owing to its multidimensionality and nebulousness, the meaning of QOL can vary from person to person across various contexts Table 1. Numerous review articles concerning the various facets of QOL are available, including reviews that focus on its conceptual origin, foundation, and development e. Reviews of various indexes related to QOL are also available e.

In addition, various frameworks and approaches for QOL assessment have been proposed, including those employing medicine and health-related questionnaire survey instruments see Bakas et al. In recent years, various global initiatives built on the concept of sustainable development have been framed and propounded, including the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MEAthe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessments IPCC athe Future Earth initiative www.

Embedded in these initiatives is the aim of promoting sustainability and improving QOL and human well-being by conserving the natural environment, promoting low carbon development, and adapting to global environmental change, especially /33254.txt change and variability.

This includes changes in the patterns of essential climate variables such as precipitation and temperature IPCC a. Climate change and variability affect QOL and human well-being in many ways, rendering it one of the most pressing and significant challenges of the present day.

For instance, climate-related disasters and extreme events such as droughts, floods, typhoons and landslides can affect both the social and ecological components of a social-ecological system Redman et al.

These ecosystem services are essential to human well-being because they are felt and experienced by people. Many scholars have demonstrated that a systematic review Grant and Booth ; Haddaway et al. In order ссылка на продолжение ensure that systematic reviews including reports are of high quality, attempts have been made to standardize the method used under the banner of RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Synthesis ROSES Haddaway et al.

Central to ROSES is a set of canada day events vancouver 2021, state-of-the-art forms that authors reviewers are encouraged to use to ensure that their methods attain the highest possible standards. Although these forms have been specifically designed for should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol topics, they are applicable across disciplines www.

Systematic reviews of QOL assessments in medicine and health-related fields are available Bakas et al. In these fields, questionnaire survey instruments such as those by Wilson and Cleary, Ferrans et al. However, there is a glaring absence of a systematic review of QOL assessments that are based on a more general context and that go beyond the use of medicine and health-related questionnaire survey instruments. Приведу ссылку, in this review of QOL assessments and indicators, we carried out the necessary to fill the information gap.

Our primary aim was to gain insights regarding the conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies and assessments of QOL as well as of selected existing and emerging QOL-related indexes. The knowledge gained was used to develop a conceptual framework that may potentially connect QOL with issues of climate change and variability. The three major steps under the ROSES principles for should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol systematic review are: 1 searching; /57124.txt screening; and 3 appraisal and synthesis Haddaway et al.

These steps are described /37529.txt in the context of this current review see also Fig. Flowchart of the review. WoS is a large database of articles that include those in the social and environmental sciences Landauer et al. In a recent scholarly work, it was demonstrated that WoS alone could be used as a source for a major systematic review Runting et al.

In this review, we were especially interested in studies focusing on QOL assessment, should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol, or measurement in the social-ecological context.

Hence, we used terms that focus on the assessment, evaluation, and measurement of QOL see Fig. We performed our search on January 4,and included records published from to This period was chosen intentionally to capture recent trends in QOL research. Our search tracked articles Fig. S1 ; Table S1. We further refined the search by focusing only on research areas that were deemed more relevant under the social-ecological system paradigm Redman et al.

By narrowing the research areas, the searched articles decreased to articles Fig. Having screened these articles based on title and abstract, 81 articles were identified and subjected to the next level of screening which focused on methods.

The articles that were excluded were those that neither explicitly mentioned the method здесь approach used in QOL assessment, nor proceeded with QOL assessment, evaluation and measurement, as well as those that did not use any method other than medicine and health-related questionnaire survey instruments.

On this basis, 19 articles were retained and subjected to a full-text review. In addition, nine pre-screened existing and emerging QOL-related indexes were included in the review Fig. It was important to include these indexes because they are all related to QOL assessment to some extent, and thus provide complementary perspectives through their conceptualization and methodological construct of QOL-related indexes.

In order to facilitate our analysis of читать полностью conceptualization and methodological construct of previous studies and assessments on QOL, as well as of some existing and emerging QOL-related indexes, we developed a questionnaire checklist Table 2 for the systematic retrieval of relevant information from all of the references Table S2. Prior to our analysis of the retrieved information, we examined the QOL publication trends and the network of keywords used in the searched articles Fig.

Questionnaire checklist used to retrieve relevant information from the references reviewed. We used the two sets of searched articles i. The same software has been used in other previous bibliometric analyses e. Based on our pre-defined set of questions Table 2we summarized the following information in a table: year of publication or first release; purpose and scope; theoretical or conceptual foundation; dimensions and indicators; weighting and aggregation methods; value range and unit of final index; unit of analysis; and type of data used.

In our synthesis, we evaluated the references in relation to the triple bottom line. The triple bottom line has been, and continues to be, an important framework for sustainability assessment. We classified the references based on the presence or absence of indicators i.

To this end, the reference that included at least one indicator that falls within the scope of the dimension under consideration was marked by placing its number inside a circle.

Otherwise, the reference was marked with a circle only, without its number. The references were also evaluated for whether subjective well-being satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment, welfare, etc. Here, an objective assessment is defined as a type of evaluation or measurement that uses indicators that are based on statistics e. As part of our should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol, we also evaluated and classified the references based on the four qualities of life plotted in four quadrants Veenhoven The four quadrants Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 are the results of the intersections of two dichotomies, namely the outer and inner qualities of life, and the life chances and life results: Q1 outer quality-life chances livability of the environment ; Q2 inner qualities-life chances life-ability of a should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol ; Q3 outer qualities-life results utility of life ; and Q4 inner qualities-life results enjoyment of life.

Life chances refer to opportunities for a good life, while life results refer to outcomes. Livability of environment refers to the habitability of the environment, while the life-ability of a person refers to the capacity of individuals to cope with pressures or perturbations.

Based on their respective indicators i. After the results of the bibliometric analysis and full-text review were summarized, we determined whether the issues of climate change and variability were considered in the references reviewed. This means that the average number of articles published per year was higher during the — period than during the — period From tothe average annual number of articles published was Based on the articles, i. The results should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol revealed some fluctuations in the annual publication should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol QOL research articles during the analysis period.

Nevertheless, the results showed an overall significant increase in article publication of QOL assessments over the past 18 years for both sets of articles Fig. Temporal trends in article publications regarding QOL — Table S1 lists all the research areas and those selected. Table S1 provides the complete list of research areas that the searched QOL articles fell into as per the WoS classification.

With a few exceptions, most of the research areas are directly related to the medicine canada day vancouver island’s clayoquot sound blasterx health-related fields. In both figures, the size of the circles indicates occurrences, while the thickness of the lines indicates link strength between keywords.

The color and position of the circles indicate the clustering pattern. For the articles Fig. Fractional counting was used, which means that the weight of a link was fractionalized. For example, if a keyword co-occurs with five other keywords, each of the five keywords has a weight of 0. For these articles, a threshold of 2 was applied i. The result for the articles is presented in Fig. The articles reviewed were structured on more specific concepts or variants of QOL, including quality of life as a function of objective socioeconomic and environmental variables, urban quality of life, transport quality of life, tourism-related community quality of life, and sustainable tourism development Table S2.

On the other hand, the QOL-related indexes reviewed were designed based on general concepts, including human development, sustainability or продолжение здесь development, better life, social progress, and social-ecological status. A wide range of QOL dimensions was identified from the references reviewed, and each of how federal employees today news dimensions included at least one indicator Table S2.

All of the references considered indicators that were related to the social dimension. Classification of the references reviewed 19 articles [1—19] and 9 indexes [20—28] based on their respective indicators plotted according to the triple bottom line fulfillers of human needs.

The figure also shows the articles and indexes that explicitly considered subjective well-being satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment, welfare, etc. Figure 5 presents the categorization of the references reviewed in terms of their respective indicators in relation to the four qualities of по ссылке. Q1 livability of the environment included any indicator that is related to the quality of the social and physical environment, such as housing conditions, as well as the quantity and quality of urban facilities, water, air, and green spaces.

Q2 life-ability of a person was associated with human and personal attributes, such as those related to health and education. Q4 enjoyment of life comprised indicators or dimensions such as subjective well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, and life expectancy. In Q1, all but one of the references had at least one indicator. Classification of the references reviewed 19 articles [1—19] and 9 indexes [20—28]plotted across the four quadrants of QOL based on their respective indicators. The numbers correspond to the numbers in Fig.

The results revealed that QOL assessments varied greatly in terms of context or unit of analysis. Of the nine indexes reviewed, eight were designed for country-level assessments, of which some could also be applied to sub-national level assessments e.

 
 

– Should you use usajobs resume builders qol – should you use usajobs resume builders qol

 
 

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