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Scores reflecting personal attitudinal factors, professional practice environment, and job competency were highest, with their arithmetic means being Welfare measures and job reward were lowest, with corresponding average score being There is statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across various health science colleges P 0. Overall satisfaction level is highest for medical college followed by Homeopathy College among all health science faculties.
Married people were more satisfied than unmarried with a P value of 0. There is statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level based on occupational history P 0. There is no statistically significant difference in the satisfaction level among the faculty based on their, sex, years of service, profession of spouse, or designation although the level of overall satisfaction is lower among associate professors.
Other factors were work itself Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills Factors mentioned by academician-clinicians as contributing toward job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
However, the Indian health care and medical education is facing systems and standards challenges. According to previous reports, job satisfaction is associated with a wide array of factors, including organizational factors such as job reward and work conditions and personal factors like sense of work achievements and work enthusiasm. As compared with JDI that contains five domains work, compensation, promotion opportunities, superiors, and coworkers [ 11 ] our self-designed questionnaire was more comprehensive.
Our study showed that the job satisfaction model in this study was more reliable the Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0. Our study provides a good starting point for further development of standard scale for measuring job satisfaction of health science faculties in teaching institutions in India.
In the study, we found that the mean score of job satisfaction of health science faculties was We also found that most faculties considered their job of importance. What they felt most dissatisfied with were work rewards i. Moreover, job satisfaction was found to be inversely related with turnover of employees,[ 13 ] i. Personal factors, such as age, gender, marital status, and spouse being professional or not, also have impact on job satisfaction.
According to previous reports, females tend to be more satisfied with their job than males,[ 15 ] and a U-shaped relation was observed between age and job satisfaction. Midcareer professionals in our series were the least satisfied with their job.
However, these caregivers are the main force of the institution and care more about their work environment and professional development. Therefore, policy makers should address their demands and concerns to bring their talents into full play. At present, it is necessary to design a well-tailored job satisfaction instrument for health care professionals in India. This study is a preliminary effort to achieve this goal.
Compared with the JDI instrument,[ 11 ] which has 14 items, and the JSS instrument[ 17 , 18 ] that consists of 10 items, our self-designed questionnaire is relatively more comprehensive but more complicated and time consuming which may pose problem with busy medical professionals.
Additionally, because the sample size of our study was comparatively small, studies of large cohorts need to be conducted to further revise and perfect this questionnaire. The response rate There are still some limitations with the research. This investigation had no baseline data for comparison. Further studies with greater sample size are required toward extrapolation of our findings. There is no study available on medical professional in terms with the standard measure to evaluate the same.
The questionnaire developed out of the work is a good tool to be used in the medical scenario with adequate reliability and validity.
The present study is unique as this has been done on health care providers and has yielded some significant findings. Job satisfaction is a multidimensional phenomenon with a number of factors operating simultaneously. Job satisfaction level across different age groups P 0. Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their faculties.
To enhance their job satisfaction, authorities should take measures to improve work conditions, raise work rewards, and pay more attention to the professional development of their employees. Fixed criteria based and transparent promotion policy should be developed. Further, in this connection, personal audit on a regular basis may be considered. Second line of leadership should be developed where full time junior capable faculties are considered. Source of Support: Dr.
Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune. Conflict of Interest: None declared. Ind Psychiatry J. Jadav 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Abstract Background: Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. Materials and Methods: To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals.
Results: Average job satisfaction score was Conclusion: Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Keywords: Health science, job satisfaction, medical, teachers. Recent figures, however, indicate that being furloughed by an employer is associated with poorer mental health, with higher levels of stress and anxiety recorded Qualtrics, The COVID crisis has been a particularly concerning time for vulnerable groups of individuals living with pre-existing health conditions, including women with a breast cancer diagnosis.
The beneficial effects of work on cognitive ability may occur through increasing neuroplasticity or cognitive reserve of the brain via consistent positive stimulation i. Furthermore, being in work has significant psychological benefits including providing a sense of meaning, identity and normality for many women living with cancer Rasmussen and Elverdam, ; Johnsson et al.
Conversely, involuntary job loss and unemployment have consistently been shown to have a significant and long-term impact on mental health Gallo et al. Compounding this, the emergence of depression following job loss increases the risk of continued unemployment Stolove et al. In the same way, job insecurity is considered to be a stressor that is detrimental to well-being and mental health Llosa et al. Such adverse outcomes are of additional concern for vulnerable populations already experiencing high levels of emotional distress anxiety and depression.
Moreover, women living with breast cancer are at a greater risk of experiencing suicidal ideations and suicide up to 25 years after their diagnosis Schairer et al. This is of significance as it is estimated that a rise in unemployment in the general population from 4. In view of these existing predispositions and the value placed on work by women after diagnosis and treatment, women living with a breast cancer diagnosis are more susceptible to experiencing emotional disorders and poorer mental health outcomes as a result of the distress and trauma caused by threats to job loss and job security.
We also aimed to investigate how threats to job security would predict levels of emotional distress including anxiety and depressive related symptomatology as well as cognitive function. We also predicted that the threat and uncertainty induced by COVID to employment security would be associated with worse cognitive function and increased levels of vulnerability to anxiety-related symptomatology including depression.
A cross-sectional survey design was utilized. Participants completed this study between the 9th of April and 26th of May The inclusion criteria for this study were women aged 18 years or older, living with a diagnosis of breast cancer, at any stage of active treatment, hormone blocker therapy or target therapy.
Women could also be employed, self-employed, undertaking voluntary work or not undertaking any work at the time of recruitment. The self-reported DQ developed by the authors comprises of items i. The total score ranges from 0 to , with a higher total score calculated from the summation of the four subscales indicating a better cognitive function.
The self-report RRS is a highly reliable questionnaire which has been used previously in breast cancer research Steiner et al. The RRS assesses the severity of depressive rumination experienced by an individual. The HADS examines the severity of anxiety and depression symptomology experienced over the last week.
In particular, the HADS assesses 14 items on a Likert scale with response scores ranging from 0 to 3. Seven item statements measure anxiety and seven measure depression. Scores range from 0 to 21, with greater scores on each of the subscales showing that a worse severity of symptomology is being experienced.
The PSWQ is widely used including, in the breast cancer population Swainston and Derakshan, to assess the level of trait worry being experienced by an individual. The modified CCI assesses health comorbidities i. Each of the 9 comorbidities [ 1 Asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis, 2 Arthritis or rheumatism, 3 Diabetes, 4 Digestive problems, 5 Heart trouble, 6 HIV illness or AIDS, 7 Kidney disease, 8 Liver problems, 9 stroke] included in the questionnaire is weighted value of 1, 2, 3, or 6 with a more severe comorbidity given a higher value i.
Items are summed together to form the overall score. Greater scores show worse comorbidity. The CCI has previously been used in breast cancer research Fu et al. The WLQ is a self-report inventory composed of 25 positively or negatively phrased items that measure how health-related condition s such as breast cancer impact everyday workplace performance and productivity Von Ah et al.
The percentage of work productivity loss in the workplace over the last 2 weeks is calculated from the four subscale total scores. Each of the four sub-domains has a scoring range from 0 to after conversion, with higher scores indicating a greater level of difficulty in the workplace.
Applying the exponential formula, a percentage score for work productivity loss is calculated the maximum attainable score for work productivity loss is Specifically, these items ask participants to reflect on whether the outbreak has made them feel more 1 anxious, 2 upset, 3 fearful or less 4 in control, and 6 confident. Individual work items were used in our analysis. Women who responded by email to one of the study advertisements on social media platforms were sent a return email containing the study information and a secure URL to access the questionnaire.
Participants were asked to provide online consent before completing the battery of online questionnaires. All participants were instructed to complete the DQ, the general cognitive and emotional health questionnaires and the main COVID subsection. Participants who reported that they were employed, self-employed or who undertook volunteering work were asked to additionally complete the COVID work subsection and the WLQ.
Participant clinical, sociodemographic and work characteristics were explored with descriptive statistics see Table 1. Partial eta squared effect sizes were calculated. In addition, two independent t -tests were performed to examine the effects of employment type employed vs.
Furthermore, independent t -tests were conducted to explore the effects of COVID generated work status i. On the first step, 1 education level, 2 age at diagnosis, 3 time since diagnosis in months , 4 treatment status, 5 grade of breast cancer, 6 pre-existing co-morbidities assessed by the CCI and 7 employment type were added.
Finally, job security was included in the third step. In addition, no violations of the assumptions of collinearity, independent error, normality, homoscedasticity and linearity were found. Finally, moderation analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of cognitive function on job security in predicting general anxiety and depression.
Self-reported cognitive function and job security were mean-centered prior to analyses. Checks for violations of the assumption of heteroscedasticity were performed and all standard errors in the model were based on the Heteroscedasticity Consistent Standard Error HC1.
These participants were excluded from any analysis examining these items as scale and person-specific means were unable to be computed and substituted for the missing items. Most of the women reported that they were either employed , As a result of the outbreak, 50 Women who had continued to work showed a work productivity loss of 7. There was a significant difference in the view of the importance of work t Similarly, there was a significant difference [ t The first regression analysis Table 3 showed that when the clinical, sociodemographic, and employment type predictors were entered on step one, they accounted for a modest 5.
A higher level of job security met with a lower level of depression in women. The results from our second regression analysis Table 4 disclosed that the seven demographic variables included in step one accounted for 6. The results from our third regression analysis Table 5 showed that when the clinical, sociodemographic and employment type predictors were entered on step one, they accounted for a modest 6. A higher level of job security met with a lower level of emotional distress in women.
Table 5. Hierarchical regression for the predictors of emotional distress as measured by the HADS-total.
Our fourth regression analysis Table 6 revealed that the seven demographic variables added in step one account for 4. Higher job security was associated with better cognitive function. In particular, women with better cognitive functioning and high job security reported lower levels of anxiety. There was no significant moderation found for depression. Figure 1.
Simple slope equations for the regression of anxiety on job security at three levels of cognitive function.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of COVID induced job insecurity and employment status i. This suggests that the outbreak of COVID provoked a re-evaluation of work importance with a more detrimental effect noted for women who had been left unable to work.
It is plausible that the reduction in work importance was part of a coping mechanism used by women who had been furloughed or left unable to work. Women who were unable to work perceived a greater level of threat or uncertainty surrounding their long-term job security. Given that unplanned loss of employment is associated with worse mental health outcomes Gallo et al. In particular, we advocate that women furloughed by employers or who are unable to work as a result of the pandemic would likely benefit from the early implementation of interventions and support services that improve emotional and psychological resilience.
Emotional distress in breast cancer survivors has been associated with poorer quality of life Zeng et al. Studies show that higher levels of depression, fatigue and poorer cognitive function are in turn linked to worse work productivity and output Calvio et al.
It is important that women who have been left unable to work or furloughed as a result of the COVID outbreak have a high emotional resilience on their return to work as this will likely improve their work efficiency, and potentially reduce the risk of them being selected for redundancy against other candidates.
Compounding this, findings further showed that job insecurity was a significant predictor for greater levels of depression and poorer cognitive function across the entire sample. Previous research has shown that threat to job security is significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms including, loss of interest, lack of energy and lower mood Blom et al. Such findings suggest that experiencing job insecurity exacerbates pre-existing cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities depression commonly reported by women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Although it has been reported previously that threat to job security in nurses is associated with increased depression and anxiety Boya et al. However, in line with previous studies, our findings showed that both worry and rumination were significantly associated with anxiety Nolen-Hoeksema, ; Ryum et al. One possible explanation for our non-significant finding is that the anxiety experienced by women living with breast cancer during the peak of the COVID pandemic, when our study was conducted, was associated more with persistent negative thinking and fear of the possible implications if they were to catch this novel virus e.
It is important that we continue to assess the effects of threat to job security and possible COVID related job loss on anxiety after the peak of the COVID outbreak and the lifting of restrictive measures. This will provide us with a greater insight into the specific factors triggering the symptoms of anxiety in women living with breast cancer.
Of focal importance, we identified that cognitive function moderated the relationship between job security and anxiety. That is, women with better cognitive function were less vulnerable to anxiety when job security was less of a concern. Previous studies indicate that cognitive function has a protective effect in attenuating emotional vulnerability anxiety and depression in women living with breast cancer.
A large cross-sectional study showed that self-reported cognitive function was significantly associated with emotional vulnerability such that a better cognitive function was coupled with greater emotional well-being Chapman et al. In addition, an intervention study conducted by Swainston and Derakshan revealed that women who received adaptive cognitive training i.
The moderating effect of cognitive function found in this study further corroborates the notion that in women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer, cognitive ability protects against the development of severe emotional symptomologies including, anxiety. Our findings suggest that women with lower cognitive function may benefit more from adaptive cognitive training interventions that improve cognitive efficiency particularly when there is a threat to their job security.
Based on our findings we recommend that both employers and the UK Government consider providing more accessible support to ameliorate emotional and cognitive health. In particular, we suggest the remote implementation of therapies such as positive psychotherapy Ochoa et al. We also advocate that where possible; employers offer women the opportunity to vocalize their concerns about possible job insecurity.
As a result, a trend toward later retirement age is likely to be evident outside the U. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between working past age 61 as 62 is the earliest age of eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits in the U. This study will fill a gap in the literature, as little is currently known about psychological well-being associated with working until later ages and particularly beyond the early age of eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits.
The focus of this research is on older workers who continue to work, the extent to which continued work is due to job lock, and the consequences of doing so in terms of life satisfaction. Next we define job lock and then present the theoretical background that guides our study and describe how this work fits into the broader literature of work, aging, and retirement.
As commonly defined, job lock refers to the notion that workers do not perceive that they have a choice — they must continue to work despite their desire to retire. Note that being in a state of job lock has an implied time course: individuals are likely to update this perception as their economic, health, or job experiences or circumstances change. Prior job lock research has primarily been published in economics e. Economic research has pointed to two potential sources of job lock: financial need and health insurance.
Prior research has found that most individuals retire and leave the workforce altogether when they can afford to do so Beehr et al. They found that certain sub-groups, such as single women and especially those with less than a high school education, are at risk of inadequate financial preparation for retirement. Health permitting, such individuals may continue working simply to sustain themselves.
These potential sources of perceived job lock are a fertile area for future research. In addition to government pensions e. Employer pensions have undergone a significant shift during the past two decades, from DB to DC plans.
In brief, DB plans provide an annuity payment, usually until death, which depends largely on job type and employee years of service with a particular firm. In contrast, DC pension plans allow workers to save a certain amount in a retirement account that can be drawn down at retirement.
Typical incentives built into DB plans i. Because DB plans are tied to a particular employer i. At around 20—30 years of service the value tends to drop, which encourages retirement Friedberg, Thus, presence of a DB pension is typically associated with earlier age of retirement. On the other hand, DC pension plans are generally portable and do not incentivize retirement at specific ages.
However, employer matching contributions to DC plans may also be an attractive benefit that may encourage employees to remain with their employer, potentially creating an alternative, albeit less binding, form of job lock. Job lock may result from circumstances in which an individual would prefer to retire but continues working in order to obtain employer-provided health insurance coverage.
In their review of the health insurance and retirement literature, Gruber and Madrian found solid empirical support across multiple studies that health insurance affects retirement decisions. Specifically, they reported that the availability of health insurance after one has retired i.
These findings were consistent across various empirical methods, models, and datasets. Older workers, and particularly those who are less healthy or more in need of healthcare, may be less willing to retire from a job that offers health insurance if insurance would otherwise not be available, be very expensive, or offer less coverage. Prior to the U. One of the provisions of the ACA was to require that employers make policies available to their workers.
In the U. This has implications for health insurance-related job lock. For example, Cutler studied older workers in the U. A review of this literature concluded that health insurance is indeed an important factor related to whether and when individuals retire, especially for secondary earners who are predominantly married women; Fisher et al. Specifically, this research has found that among households with dual earners, one spouse may work primarily to obtain employer-provided health insurance or supplementary insurance for the household.
Rashad and Sarpon conducted a literature review and concluded that there is evidence of health-insurance related job lock in the U. They presented empirical results using data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS to study individuals with health insurance in which they compared those with and without employer-provided health insurance.
Individuals with employer-provided health insurance were less likely to leave a job and more likely to stay on the job longer than those with other sources of health insurance. Boyle and Lahey found that new access to non-employer provided health insurance decreases full-time work and increases part-time employment among older workers. More research is needed to build our understanding of employer-provided health insurance and labor mobility, particularly given the passage of the ACA.
Work disability researchers are also concerned about job lock because individuals may continue to work in spite of injuries and poor working conditions in order to obtain employee benefits when they would otherwise leave that job or retire altogether. Job lock has been conceptualized in multiple ways in the work disability literature. For example, Pransky and colleagues conceptualized job lock as existing when a worker remains on the job to obtain employee benefits, including wages, health insurance, or perhaps other employee benefits but would otherwise prefer to leave e.
Specifically, Huysse-Gaytandjieva et al. Both of these studies incorporated psychological aspects of work — namely job dissatisfaction — in the definition, which extends the conceptualization of job lock beyond simply a perception of economic status on its own. Although this was the first study to integrate economic and psychological factors to study job lock, it did not account for the key economic factors e.
Our definition is consistent with prior research e. Next we summarize relevant theories in the work, aging, and retirement literature that guide our investigation of job lock and well-being. The work and retirement literature has demonstrated many possible reasons why workers at older ages e. In this article we focus on working until later ages and consequences of continued work.
Fisher et al. This is particularly the case when an individual does not have control over his or her work situation and experiences job lock — a preference to retire, but a need to continue working due to economic necessity: either for pay, health insurance benefits, or both.
Two additional theories guide our investigation regarding perceptions of job lock and psychological well-being: 1 rational choice theory and 2 a resource-based perspective. Rational choice theory, grounded primarily in economics, posits that individuals make decisions based on their preferences and the constraints or choices they face Becker, ; Hatcher, According to rational choice theory, individuals make work and retirement decisions based on their assessment of necessary economic resources.
Specifically this theory identified multiple types of resources e. Resources most relevant to perceptions of job lock include financial and emotional affective resources. For example, greater financial resources would be associated with being less likely to experience job lock. Altogether, understanding the motivation and decision to work or retire is complex Kanfer et al. There are multiple reasons that can factor into this process, but generally there may be two categories of people who make the decision to continue working: those who want to continue working, and those who feel that they have to for financial or other economic e.
In our examination of job lock, we focus on individuals in the latter of these two categories. We apply the aforementioned theories in the retirement literature to consider both economic and psychological factors involved in the work motivation and retirement process to improve our understanding of perceived job lock and life satisfaction. Although the ultimate objective of our study was to examine the relation between job lock and well-being, we began by undertaking a preliminary investigation to examine the construct validity of job lock.
We sought empirical evidence to clarify the relations among similar constructs by correlating job lock with other constructs that have been investigated in relation to work and satisfaction in retirement, including continuance organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment, career entrenchment, and job satisfaction. Job lock is conceptually very similar to a concept in the organizational psychology and management literatures known as continuance organizational commitment e.
Continuance commitment refers to the perceived costs of leaving an organization, which may potentially include the financial and insurance costs discussed above. Prior research has found a small negative linear relation between continuance organizational commitment and retirement e.
Relations between other dimensions of organizational commitment and retirement were stronger e. Zhan, Wang, and Yao found that career commitment and organizational commitment predicted bridge employment decisions and that economic stress moderated the relation between the commitment variables and bridge employment decisions.
However, no research to date has compared measures of job lock to organizational commitment. Likewise, career entrenchment is a construct similar to job lock but has received little empirical attention in this context. Although it was originally conceptualized as a three-dimensional construct, Blau provided evidence to support a two-dimensional structure.
The accumulated costs dimension represents the time, money, and emotional investment that would be lost if one pursued a new occupation, and the limited alternatives dimension represents a perceived lack of available options for pursuing a new occupation. The relation between job lock and continuance organizational commitment can be explained by rational choice theory. Hypothesis 1: Job lock and continuance organizational commitment are positively related.
That is, individuals who report experiencing job lock will have higher levels of continuance organizational commitment than those who do not report job lock.
Similarly, because job lock occurs when a worker would like to leave their work organization, we expect that experiencing job lock is associated with less positive feelings toward the organization.
By definition, affective commitment refers to identifying with the goals of the organization and wants to remain a part of the organization. On the other hand, negative job attitudes will be related to greater intentions to leave work altogether. Therefore, Hypothesis 2 states that:. Hypothesis 2: Job lock and affective organizational commitment are negatively related. In other words, reports of job lock will be related to lower levels of affective organizational commitment.
Next we examined the relation between job lock and career entrenchment. Hypothesis 3: Job lock and career entrenchment are positively related i. Furthermore, Huysse-Gaytandjieva et al. Hypothesis 4: Job lock and job satisfaction are negatively related. In other words, reports of job lock will be associated with lower levels of job satisfaction. Participants in this study included a heterogeneous sample of working adults employed at least 20 hours per week in the U.
First we deployed a screening survey to 1, individuals in order to 1 recruit only participants from the U.
The screening study could be viewed only by participants in the U. In the main survey we included two items to detect insufficient effort responding IER; e. We assessed job lock using two items identical to what has been used by Wilkie et al. Job lock was coded individually for money and insurance job lock. We used the organizational commitment scales by Allen and Meyer to assess three dimensions of organizational commitment.
Descriptive statistics and correlations for all study variables are shown in Table 1. We found some support for Hypothesis 1, which stated that individuals who reported job lock would report higher levels of continuance organizational commitment. Next we examined the magnitude of the correlations between job lock and affective organizational commitment to test Hypothesis 2. Next we present Study 2 and then discuss the results of both studies in the Discussion section.
Results for job lock — insurance excluded 85 participants who reported not having access to health insurance provided by their employer. Prior research has examined job lock in relation to health and disability outcomes Wilkie et al. However, no empirical research to date has related job lock to well-being e. This issue is of particular importance for understanding work and well-being among older adults. In addition, research has demonstrated life satisfaction is important to examine among older adults.
The purpose of Study 2 was to examine how job lock is related to work status and subjective well-being two years later among older workers in the U. Based on these theories, we expect that workers will evaluate the resources they have and the resources they need to make rational decisions regarding whether to retire.
Psychological, economic, social and other resources they have will affect their perceptions of subjective well-being in older adulthood. As such, individuals who report needing financial resources or health insurance even if they would prefer to retire are more likely to continue working past age 62 compared to those who did not report job lock and will therefore experience lower levels of life satisfaction.
Therefore we hypothesize the following:. That is, workers who report experiencing job lock at Time 1 will report lower levels of life satisfaction at Time 2. Next we will examine the interaction between job lock and work status two years later in relation to life satisfaction. Therefore in Hypothesis 5a we predict that there will be an interaction between job lock, life satisfaction, and work status based on retirement status as follows:. Hypothesis 5a: Individuals who reported being in a job lock situation at Time 1 and who are retired at Time 2 will have higher levels of life satisfaction at Time 2 compared to those who did not previously report job lock and compared to those who are still working at Time 2.
In Study 2 we used two independent samples, both obtained from different waves of the HRS. We describe each of these samples as Sample 1 and Sample 2. The HRS is a U. Details about the HRS design are published elsewhere Sonnega et al. We limited our analysis sample to those who were in the labor force at the time of their interview in , answered the questions in the psychosocial survey pertaining to job lock in , and individuals aged 62 — 65 in the wave so that we could obtain information about subsequent work status and well-being.
The sample was limited to this age group to consider only those who had newly reached the minimum age of partial or full eligibility for U. Social Security retirement benefits at the follow-up assessment. The average age of respondents was We also sought to replicate our results among workers who met the same criteria but participated in the and waves of the HRS. Because the U. Affordable Care Act was passed in , this replication allows us to not only cross-validate our results from Sample 1, but also compare results before and after the passage of the Affordable Care Act.
We used the same criteria for selecting the sample for analysis: individuals in the labor force at the time of their interview in , answered the questions in the psychosocial survey pertaining to job lock in , and individuals aged of 62—65 in the wave so that we could obtain information about subsequent work status and well-being.
These items are the same as those used by Wilkie et al. For both samples in Study 2, job lock was assessed at baseline Sample 1; Sample 2 and was coded individually for money and insurance job lock. How satisfied are you with it?
This item was reverse coded so that a higher score reflects higher life satisfaction. To identify those participants at baseline who were in the labor force, our sample selection criteria included all those who were identified as working full-time, working part-time, unemployed, or partly retired.
This was used as part of our selection criteria, but was not included in any analyses. We also included a large number of covariates measured at baseline that are likely to be related to subsequent work status and life satisfaction. We also included assessments of physical functioning activities of daily living ADLs ; count of self-reported difficulties with dressing, bathing, eating, getting in and out of bed, using the toilet, and crossing a room; values range from 0—6 and instrumental activities of daily living IADLS; count of self-reported difficulties with preparing meals, buying groceries, using the telephone, taking medications, and managing money; values range from 0—5.
To rule out differences in work status and life satisfaction associated with financial status, we included a comprehensive measure of household income a variable derived from household earnings, capital income, pensions, income from social security, unemployment or workers compensation, income from any other government transfers, and all other household income from the RAND HRS Chien et al.
Due to extreme skewness to the household income variable, the analysis used a log-transformed version of this variable. We also examined pension status, as respondents had the opportunity to report on up to four pensions.
Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 2 for both Samples 1 and 2. Pension holdings were similar across both samples. Correlations among study variables for Samples 1 and 2 are presented in Table 3. Surprisingly, although job lock due to money was associated with lower life satisfaction two years later, job lock due to health insurance was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction.
However, this finding was qualified by a small but significant interaction between continued work two years later and lock due to insurance see Table 4. Specifically, continued work versus retirement interacted with health insurance job lock such that life satisfaction was significantly higher for those who previously reported job lock but were no longer working two years later See Figure 1.
This finding provided support for Hypothesis 5a. The pattern of results in Sample 2 was partially consistent with those from Sample 1 see Table 5 for results predicting life satisfaction with Sample 2.
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An abbreviation for field interviewer. Freelance job: A type of employment where the individual does not have long-term commitments to any one. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain. This site is designed to be your guide as you consider, apply, and secure federal employment. We’ll help you research federal agencies and government careers.